BACKGROUND: This is an update of a 2008 Cochrane review. Breastfeeding is important. However, not all infants can feed at the breast and methods of expressing milk need evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To assess acceptability, effectiveness, safety, effect on milk composition, contamination and cost implications of methods of milk expression. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (March 2014), CINAHL (1982 to March 2014), conference proceedings, secondary references and contacted researchers.
We review the progress in testing the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Many human epidemiological studies both by ourselves and others have confirmed and extended the original observations on which the hypothesis was based. We are not aware of any contradictory findings and we emphasise the strength of the association between birth weight and the subsequent development of the metabolic syndrome. We have worked extensively experimentally to test the hypothesis in a rat model in which pregnant and/or lactating dams are fed a diet moderately restricted in proteins.
The aim of this literature review was to identify breastfeeding practices that support women with diabetes to breastfeed. A search was undertaken of CINAHL and Medline databases to identify studies that inform breastfeeding practice for women with diabetes. This resulted in 14 studies (19 records). Most studies focused on women with GDM and T1D with some consideration of T2D. The review has been organised using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, to enable a clear focus on the needs of women while identifying supportive practices.
During breastfeeding or suckling, maternal oxytocin levels are raised by somatosensory stimulation. Oxytocin may, however, also be released by nonnoxious stimuli such as touch, warm temperature etc. in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, oxytocin may be involved in physiological and behavioral effects induced by social interaction in a more general context. In both male and female rats oxytocin exerts potent physiological antistress effects.
Although expression of the Fos family of transcription factors is induced by environmental stimuli that trigger adaptive neuronal response, evidence that Fos family members mediate these responses is lacking. To address this issue, mice were generated with an inactivating mutation in the fosB gene. fosB mutant mice are profoundly deficient in their ability to nurture young animals but are normal with respect to other cognitive and sensory functions. The nurturing defect is likely due to the absence of FosB in the preoptic area, a region of the hypothalamus that is critical for nurturing.
Females of the inbred mouse RR strain have a limited ability to nurture their offspring, and frequently the young die during rearing. Quantitative trait locus analysis was carried out on the F2 progeny produced from a genetic cross between RR and KK, a strain of normal nurturing ability, to elucidate the putative genetic basis governing certain aspects of the inferior nurturing ability in the RR strain. One hundred and ninety-two F2 female mice were mated with C57BL/6J males.
Among Maithil women there is an understanding of the relation between a mother's milk and the health of her child. Their understanding is supported by the Ayurvedic tradition. Characteristic is the way in which breast-feeding condenses so many meanings--nutritional, medical and moral--into one act. The mother not only nurses her child but also forms his character, fulfills her own personhood and perpetuates her husband's family.
The purpose of this review article is to evaluate the peripartum outcomes of yoga during pregnancy, including the postpartum period and lactation. The PubMed database was analyzed from January 1970 to January 2011. We identified five prospective observational studies (n = 575) and three randomized clinical trials (RCTs; n = 298), which were analyzed separately.
BACKGROUND: Maternal allergy is believed to be a risk factor for peanut allergy (PNA) in children. However, there is no direct evidence of maternal transmission of PNA susceptibility, and it is unknown whether maternal peanut exposure affects the development of PNA in offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of maternal PNA on offspring reactions to the first peanut exposure, and whether maternal low-dose peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation influences these reactions and peanut sensitization in a murine model.