American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Berberine, a botanical alkaloid used to control blood glucose in type 2 diabetes in China, has recently been reported to activate AMPK. However, it is not clear how AMPK is activated by berberine. In this study, activity and action mechanism of berberine were investigated in vivo and in vitro. In dietary obese rats, berberine increased insulin sensitivity after 5-wk administration. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were decreased by 46 and 48%, respectively, in the rats.
BACKGROUND: Metabolic flux profiling based on the analysis of distribution of stable isotope tracer in metabolites is an important method widely used in cancer research to understand the regulation of cell metabolism and elaborate new therapeutic strategies. Recently, we developed software Isodyn, which extends the methodology of kinetic modeling to the analysis of isotopic isomer distribution for the evaluation of cellular metabolic flux profile under relevant conditions.
PURPOSE: The study's objective was to determine the proportion and patient characteristics of patients in vasopressor-dependent septic shock who presented without lactatemia. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients presenting to an urban tertiary-care emergency department between December 2007 and September 2008 was conducted. Patients with a final diagnosis of septic shock requiring vasopressors were divided, based on initial lactate, to nonlactate expressors (0-2.4 mmol/L), intermediate (2.5-3.9 mmol/L), and high (>4.0 mmol/L) lactate groups.
Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most often used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate levels can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion may be the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate level elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate level varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation.
Marked decline of red cell metabolism has been described during the acute state of decreased activation associated with the stylized mental technique of transcendental meditation (TM) in long-term meditators (5-10 years regular elicitation, TM instructors). It is not known whether unstylized rest is accompanied by a similar effect and it is not known what effector(s) may contribute to red cell metabolic changes in these states. In the present study ordinary, unstylized rest was found to be accompanied by small increase of red cell glycolytic rate.
The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
The science of sports massage is of interest to many populations including athletes, athletic trainers, coaches, as well as sports physiologists. While evidence to support or refute the effects of massage on sports performance is insufficient to make definitive statements, new reports and trends within data help formulate an understanding of sports massage. This article will review sports massage research on topics including lactate clearance, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle fatigue, the psychological effect of massage, and injury prevention and treatment.
Aesthetic Surgery Journal / the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
BACKGROUND: Most HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy develop facial lipoatrophy soon after commencing treatment. Attempts to correct lipoatrophy through autologous fat transfer or the use of temporary, semipermanent, or permanent fillers have achieved some benefits, but either do not have lasting effects, do not treat some areas effectively, or have other disadvantages.
Despite the widespread occurrence of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), there is little consensus as to the exact cause or which treatments may be most effective at alleviating symptoms. Greater understanding of DOMS can give sports medicine and fitness professionals an opportunity to help prevent or speed recovery of this performance limiting condition. This article will review the DOMS literature, including the potential role of psychosocial factors and explore studies which involve massage therapy as a treatment modality.
BACKGROUND: Despite massage being widely used by athletes, little scientific evidence exists to confirm the efficacy of massage for promoting both physiological and psychological recovery after exercise and massage effects on performance. AIM: To investigate the effect of massage on perceived recovery and blood lactate removal, and also to examine massage effects on repeated boxing performance. METHODS: Eight amateur boxers completed two performances on a boxing ergometer on two occasions in a counterbalanced design.
Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) (Sculptra, Dermik Laboratories, Bridgewater, NJ, a business of sanofi-aventis US, LLC) is a novel biocompatible and biodegradable injectable device currently under review by the Food and Drug Administration for a cosmetic indication. When implanted into soft tissues, PLLA is thought to elicit a foreign body reaction, resulting in fibroplasia and subsequent collagen formation. This process leads to a gradual thickening of the dermis and long-lasting augmentation of facial contours.