Lactones

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Low-back pain is a common condition and a substantial economic burden in industrialized societies. A large proportion of patients with chronic low-back pain use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in low-back pain. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for non-specific low-back pain.

Author(s): 
Gagnier, J. J.
van Tulder, M.
Berman, B.
Bombardier, C.
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

Samuel Hahnemann attributed fundamental importance to the principle of similitude, promoting it to a 'natural law'. Observing that enantiopathic or allopathic treatment produced enduring aggravation of the disease symptoms after a brief and transitory initial relief, he systematised homeopathic treatment, prescribing substances that provoke similar symptoms in healthy individual.

Author(s): 
Teixeira, M. Z.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for non-specific LBP.

Author(s): 
Oltean, Hanna
Robbins, Chris
van Tulder, Maurits W.
Berman, Brian M.
Bombardier, Claire
Gagnier, Joel J.
Publication Title: 
Spine

STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted. OBJECTIVE: To compare medication, needle acupuncture, and spinal manipulation for managing chronic (>13 weeks duration) spinal pain because the value of medicinal and popular forms of alternative care for chronic spinal pain syndromes is uncertain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Between February 1999 and October 2001, 115 patients without contraindication for the three treatment regimens were enrolled at the public hospital's multidisciplinary spinal pain unit.

Author(s): 
Giles, Lynton G. F.
Muller, Reinhold
Publication Title: 
Spine

STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted. OBJECTIVE: To compare medication, needle acupuncture, and spinal manipulation for managing chronic (>13 weeks duration) spinal pain because the value of medicinal and popular forms of alternative care for chronic spinal pain syndromes is uncertain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Between February 1999 and October 2001, 115 patients without contraindication for the three treatment regimens were enrolled at the public hospital's multidisciplinary spinal pain unit.

Author(s): 
Giles, Lynton G. F.
Muller, Reinhold
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

The anticryptosporidial activity of four macrolides alone and in combination with other antimicrobial agents was investigated against ten clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum recovered from stools of AIDS patients. The susceptibility tests were performed by inoculation of the protozoa on to cell monolayers and determining the parasite count after 72 h incubation at 37 degrees C.

Author(s): 
Giacometti, A.
Cirioni, O.
Scalise, G.
Publication Title: 
Epidemiology and Infection

To characterize post-treatment clearance of young forms of Plasmodium falciparum from the blood, three differential equation models, a linear decline, a linear then logarithmic decline, and the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetic equation, were fitted to log-transformed serial parasite counts from 30 semi-immune patients with synchronous parasitaemias allocated one of six antimalarial drug regimens. The first two equations were solved analytically. The MM equation was solved numerically using a fifth-order Runge-Kutta method.

Author(s): 
Davis, T. M.
Martin, R. B.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Antibiotics

In the course of our screening program for artemisinin-like antimalarial compounds from microorganisms, seven fungal metabolites such as radicicol and heptelidic acid were identified as active compounds. Some of them exhibited antimalarial activity in vitro against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to the extent of approximately 1/10 as potent as artemisinin. Radicicol was moderately active in vivo against Plasmodium berghei in mice.

Author(s): 
Tanaka, Y.
Shiomi, K.
Kamei, K.
Sugoh-Hagino, M.
Enomoto, Y.
Fang, F.
Yamaguchi, Y.
Masuma, R.
Zhang, C. G.
Zhang, X. W.
Omura, S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Antibiotics

Antimalarial screening was performed for microbial metabolites that simulate artemisinin in their mode of action, a potent antimalarial component of an herbal remedy with a characteristic peroxide structure. Nanaomycin A was identified in this screen as an antimalarial compound, together with radicicol and several other compounds already reported (J. Antibiotics 51: 153 approximately 160, 1998). Nanaomycin A inhibited in vitro growth of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum with an IC80 value of 33.1 nM. It was as potent as radicicol and about 1/10 as potent as artemisinin.

Author(s): 
Tanaka, Y.
Kamei, K.
Otoguro, K.
Omura, S.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The antimalarial peroxide, dispiro-1,2,4,5-tetraoxane WR 148999, was synergistic with chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, and artemisinin against both D6 and W2 clones of Plasmodium falciparum. In consideration of the contrasting antagonism between artemisinin and chloroquine, these drug combination data imply that WR 148999 and artemisinin may not share a common mechanism of action.

Author(s): 
Vennerstrom, J. L.
Ager, A. L.
Andersen, S. L.
Grace, J. M.
Wongpanich, V.
Angerhofer, C. K.
Hu, J. K.
Wesche, D. L.

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