Laryngoscopy

Publication Title: 
Minerva Medica

The successful application of hypnosis for subjecting a psychologically refractory child to indirect laryngoscopy is described. A special technique applicable to children is presented and discussed. In this case hypnosis may be replaced by general anaesthetic with gas.

Author(s): 
Tubere, G.
Publication Title: 
Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica

We studied nociception-associated arousal following laryngoscopy and intubation in patients scheduled for elective open heart surgery, using EEG power spectra and hemodynamics. Either fentanyl (7 micrograms/kg; n = 30) or sufentanil (1 microgram/kg; n = 30) were given in a randomized fashion to induce anesthesia in heavily premedicated patients, followed by pancuronium bromide (100 micrograms/kg).

Author(s): 
Freye, E.
Dehnen-Seipel, H.
Latasch, L.
Behler, M.
Wilder-Smith, O. H.
Publication Title: 
Pediatrics

Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a condition of paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. VCD often presents as stridorous breathing, which may be misdiagnosed as asthma. The mismanagement of this disorder may result in unnecessary treatment and iatrogenic morbidity. An association with psychogenic factors has been reported, and a higher incidence of anxiety-related illness has been demonstrated in patients with VCD.

Author(s): 
Anbar, R. D.
Hehir, D. A.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

The results of any study of the relative importance of anesthetic depth versus intensity of neuromuscular block on conditions for endotracheal intubation can be manipulated by the investigator. Several independent factors, such as the depth of hypnosis induced, the interval between drug administration and laryngoscopy, the onset profile of the muscle relaxant, and the multiple of the 95% effective dose given, must be controlled.

Author(s): 
Kopman, A. F.
Klewicka, M. M.
Neuman, G. G.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this investigation was to describe the pharmacodynamic interaction between propofol and remifentanil for probability of no response to shaking and shouting, probability of no response to laryngoscopy, Bispectral Index (BIS), and electroencephalographic approximate entropy (AE). METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers received either propofol or remifentanil alone and then concurrently with a fixed concentration of remifentanil or propofol, respectively, via a target-controlled infusion.

Author(s): 
Bouillon, Thomas W.
Bruhn, Jörgen
Radulescu, Lucian
Andresen, Corina
Shafer, Thomas J.
Cohane, Carol
Shafer, Steven L.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

In 21 patients given sevoflurane anesthesia, we simultaneously compared the abilities of Bispectral Index (BIS) and rapidly extracted auditory evoked potentials index (AAI) to display the effect of an increasing cerebral concentration of sevoflurane, with and without noxious stimulation. In addition to BIS/AAI, hemodynamic variables were monitored. After titrating sevoflurane to BIS = 50-55 during 15 min, the end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (1.46% +/- 0.20%) was doubled followed by a noxious stimulus, laryngoscopy, applied at random time points within the following 15 min.

Author(s): 
Ekman, A.
Brudin, L.
Sandin, R.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

BACKGROUND: Bispectral index (BIS) and state entropy (SE) monitor hypnosis. We evaluated the correlation and the agreement between those parameters during propofol anaesthesia and laryngoscopy with and without muscle relaxation. METHODS: A total of 25 patients were anaesthetized with propofol. At steady state (SS: BIS 40-50), they randomly received rocuronium (R) or saline (S); 3 min thereafter, a 20 s laryngoscopy was performed.

Author(s): 
Bonhomme, V.
Deflandre, E.
Hans, P.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

BACKGROUND: The spectral entropy of the electroencephalogram has been proposed to monitor the depth of anaesthesia. State Entropy (SE) reflects the level of hypnosis. Response Entropy (RE), computed from electroencephalogram and facial muscle activity, reflects the response to nociceptive stimulation. We evaluated the effect of rocuronium on Bispectral Index (BIS) and entropy responses to laryngoscopy. METHODS: A total of 25 patients were anaesthetized with propofol using a target-controlled infusion. At steady state, they randomly received 0.6 mg kg(-1) rocuronium (R) or saline (S).

Author(s): 
Hans, P.
Giwer, J.
Brichant, J. F.
Dewandre, P.-Y.
Bonhomme, V.
Publication Title: 
Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego

Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a functional laryngeal dysfunction first described in the nineteenth century. It is quite frequent in patients with "refractory" asthma. It is very often treated as a steroid resistant asthma or exercise-induced bronchospasm, leading to unnecessary, aggressive asthma treatment and iatrogenic morbidity. Vocal cord dysfunction causes paradoxical adduction of vocal cords during the inspiratory phase of respiratory cycle, resulting in acute, episodic dyspnea not responding to typical antiasthmatic treatment.

Author(s): 
Rutkowski, Ryszard
Rutkowski, Krzysztof
Publication Title: 
Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego

Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a functional laryngeal dysfunction first described in the nineteenth century. It is quite frequent in patients with "refractory" asthma. It is very often treated as a steroid resistant asthma or exercise-induced bronchospasm, leading to unnecessary, aggressive asthma treatment and iatrogenic morbidity. Vocal cord dysfunction causes paradoxical adduction of vocal cords during the inspiratory phase of respiratory cycle, resulting in acute, episodic dyspnea not responding to typical antiasthmatic treatment.

Author(s): 
Rutkowski, Ryszard
Rutkowski, Krzysztof

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