Lead

Publication Title: 
Current Drug Safety

Traditional medicine use is common in developing countries and increasingly popular in the western world. Despite the popularity of traditional medicines, scientific research on safety and efficacy is limited. However documented fatalities and severe illness due to lead poisoning are increasingly recognized to be associated with traditional medicine use. As society becomes more globalized, it is imperative for pharmacists and health care providers to learn about the safety of traditional medical practices.

Author(s): 
Karri, Surya K.
Saper, Robert B.
Kales, Stefanos N.
Publication Title: 
JAMA

CONTEXT: Lead, mercury, and arsenic intoxication have been associated with the use of Ayurvedic herbal medicine product (HMPs). OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and concentration of heavy metals in Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in South Asia and sold in Boston-area stores and to compare estimated daily metal ingestion with regulatory standards.

Author(s): 
Saper, Robert B.
Kales, Stefanos N.
Paquin, Janet
Burns, Michael J.
Eisenberg, David M.
Davis, Roger B.
Phillips, Russell S.
Publication Title: 
JAMA

CONTEXT: Lead, mercury, and arsenic have been detected in a substantial proportion of Indian-manufactured traditional Ayurvedic medicines. Metals may be present due to the practice of rasa shastra (combining herbs with metals, minerals, and gems). Whether toxic metals are present in both US- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines is unknown.

Author(s): 
Saper, Robert B.
Phillips, Russell S.
Sehgal, Anusha
Khouri, Nadia
Davis, Roger B.
Paquin, Janet
Thuppil, Venkatesh
Kales, Stefanos N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herbal and herbo-mineral preparations are being traditionally used in Indian medicines. The herbo-mineral preparations have several benefits that have been instrumental in their widespread use in treatment of different disorders by traditional medicinal practitioners. These include better stability, lower dosage, ease of storability and sustained availability.

Author(s): 
Nagarajan, Surya
Sivaji, Kalaiarasi
Krishnaswamy, Sridharan
Pemiah, Brindha
Rajan, Kalpoondi Sekar
Krishnan, Uma Maheswari
Sethuraman, Swaminathan
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: The heavy metal lead has been shown to be associated with a genotoxic risk. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism commonly utilized in genetic toxicology testing. The endosymbionts--Wolbachia are now very common in both wild populations and laboratory stocks of Drosophila. Wolbachia may induce resistance to pathogenic viruses, filarial nematodes and Plasmodium in fruit fly and mosquito hosts. However the effect of Wolbachia infection on the resistance of their hosts to heavy metal is unknown.

Author(s): 
Wang, Ling
Zhou, Chun
He, Zhen
Wang, Zheng-Guang
Wang, Jia-Lin
Wang, Yu-Feng
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychiatric Research

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Despite its prevalence, the critical factors involved in its development remain to be identified. It was recently suggested that epigenetic mechanisms probably contribute to the etiology of ADHD. The present study was designed to examine the associations of epigenetic markers with ADHD among Chinese Han children, aiming to establish the prediction model for this syndrome from the epigenetic perspective.

Author(s): 
Xu, Yi
Chen, Xiang-Tao
Luo, Man
Tang, Yuqing
Zhang, Guangxiang
Wu, De
Yang, Bin
Ruan, Di-Yun
Wang, Hui-Li
Publication Title: 
Analytical Sciences: The International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

A wax-impregnated carbon paste electrode with mercury oxalate as the bulk modifier is found to be suitable for the determination of heavy metal ions by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The contents of binder and modifier have been optimized, until they showed low background current and easy renewability. The bulk-modified electrode is applied for the simultaneous determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in medicinal plants and Ayurvedic tablets (Liv 52). The results obtained have been validated with HMDE and AAS and are found to be comparable.

Author(s): 
Mascarenhas, Ronald J.
Satpati, Ashis K.
Yellappa, Shivaraj
Sherigara, Bailure S.
Bopiah, Ajjikuttira K.
Publication Title: 
Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research

BACKGROUND: Millions worldwide use Ayurvedic (traditional Indian) medicines. These medications are increasingly associated with lead poisoning, often accompanied by anemia. We compared the relative hematopoietic toxicity of Ayurvedic lead poisoning with a common form of occupational lead poisoning. MATERIAL/METHODS: We retrospectively studied 66 adult lead intoxications: 43 published Ayurvedic cases identified in published reports by searching MEDLINE (1966 to November 2005); 4 Ayurvedic patients seen at a referral center; and 19 lead paint intoxications from the same center.

Author(s): 
Kales, Stefanos N.
Christophi, Costas A.
Saper, Robert B.
Publication Title: 
Current Drug Safety

Traditional medicine use is common in developing countries and increasingly popular in the western world. Despite the popularity of traditional medicines, scientific research on safety and efficacy is limited. However documented fatalities and severe illness due to lead poisoning are increasingly recognized to be associated with traditional medicine use. As society becomes more globalized, it is imperative for pharmacists and health care providers to learn about the safety of traditional medical practices.

Author(s): 
Karri, Surya K.
Saper, Robert B.
Kales, Stefanos N.
Publication Title: 
JAMA

CONTEXT: Lead, mercury, and arsenic have been detected in a substantial proportion of Indian-manufactured traditional Ayurvedic medicines. Metals may be present due to the practice of rasa shastra (combining herbs with metals, minerals, and gems). Whether toxic metals are present in both US- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines is unknown.

Author(s): 
Saper, Robert B.
Phillips, Russell S.
Sehgal, Anusha
Khouri, Nadia
Davis, Roger B.
Paquin, Janet
Thuppil, Venkatesh
Kales, Stefanos N.

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