ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (Oleaceae) is a mythological plant; has high medicinal values in Ayurveda. The popular medicinal use of this plant are anti-helminthic and anti-pyretic besides its use as a laxative, in rheumatism, skin ailments and as a sedative. Vitally, the natives plant it in their home gardens to pass on its medicinal usage to oncoming generations.
The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn.
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the anti-arthritic effect of Terminalia chebula hydroalcoholic extract (TCHE) in experimental models and attempts to correlate the effect of treatment on macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and extent of disease activity. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in rats by subplantar administration of either formaldehyde or complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Joint size was measured at regular intervals by using a micrometer screw gauge.
CONTEXT: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the important microvascular complications of diabetes; however, the main problem remains is the control of progression of nephropathy in diabetes. Chebulic acid was selected, as tannins from Terminalia chebula are used as antidiabetic, renoprotective, antioxidant, hypotensive and an ?-glucosidase inhibitor. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the effect of chebulic acid on ischemia reperfusion induced biochemical alteration in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chebulic acid (CA) was isolated from T.
Iron is estimated to be deficient in the diets of one fifth of the world's population. Iron is commonly provided as a supplemental nutrient in industrialized countries for uses of choice. In other countries of the world, it may be required as an overt addition to the diet to prevent iron deficiency. This may be accomplished through fortification of a common food. As a micronutrient, iron has a relatively narrow range of safety--whether given as a supplement or fortificant, it must be in a high enough dose to be appreciably absorbed, but low enough to avoid toxicity.
Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
American Elapid snakes (Coral Snakes) comprise the genera Leptomicrurus, Micruroides and Micrurus, which form a vast taxonomic assembly of 330 species distributed from the South of United States to the southern region of South America. In order to obtain venom for animal immunizations aimed at antivenom production, Coral Snakes must be kept in captivity and submitted periodically to venom extraction procedures. Thus, to maintain a snake colony in good health for this purpose, a complete alternative diet utilizing an easily obtained prey animal is desirable.
In a previous paper, we reported that PZ-177 had potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. In the present work, acute toxicity and action of PZ-177 on the central nervous system were tested in comparison with PZ-222, one of metabolites of PZ-177, and mepirizole. Acute toxicity of PZ-177 was slightly less than that of aminopyrine and the same as that of mepirizole in mice and rats. PZ-177 produced from sedation to loss of righting reflex with the increase of dose.
The effects of oral administration of clonazepam, a new benzodiazepine derivative (F. Hoffmann-La Roche), on the central nervous system were compared with those of diazepam and several anticonvulsants in mice and rats. 1) Clonazepam exhibited a moderate inhibitory effect on the locomotor activity observed with open-field situation in mice and no effect in rats, while it inhibited markedly the rearing behavior in both animals, the duration of action being approximately six hours.
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
Hexobarbital hypnosis and d-amphetamine toxicity were observed in rats fed a commercially available rat food preparation (lab chow) and in another two groups fed complete nutritionally defined diets with or without magnesium. Neither hexobarbital sleeping time nor hexobarbital blood concentration at awakening were affected after 4, 8 or 12 days of feeding the deficient diet. However, increased sensitivity to d-amphetamine was observed after 11 days of feeding the same magnesium deficient diet to other rats.
In the central nervous system, ZM decreased locomotor activity and potentiated hypnosis of hexobarbital-Na in mice. ZM had little hypothermic action and there were no anticonvulsive effects on chemoconvulsion and electroconvulsion shock. ZM, 3 mg/kg i.v. produced a sleep-like pattern in the spontaneous EEG activity of cat; from 20 to 30 min. after injection, spindle burst-like waves (12-13 Hz) appeared in the cortex and subcortex. These EEG activities were antagonized by atropine sulfate.