Leucine

Publication Title: 
Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of muscle mass is crucial to improving outcome and quality of life in cancer patients. Stimulating muscle protein synthesis is the metabolic basis for maintaining muscle mass, but in cancer patients normal dietary intake has minimal effects on muscle protein synthesis. Adding leucine to high protein supplements stimulates muscle protein synthesis in healthy older subjects.

Author(s): 
Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.
Safar, Ahmed
Schutzler, Scott
Memelink, Robert
Ferrando, Arny
Spencer, Horace
van Helvoort, Ardy
Wolfe, Robert R.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

We have previously shown that autophagy is required for chronological longevity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we examine the requirements for autophagy during extension of chronological life span (CLS) by calorie restriction (CR). We find that autophagy is upregulated by two CR interventions that extend CLS: water wash CR and low glucose CR. Autophagy is required for full extension of CLS during water wash CR under all growth conditions tested.

Author(s): 
Aris, John P.
Alvers, Ashley L.
Ferraiuolo, Roy A.
Fishwick, Laura K.
Hanvivatpong, Amanda
Hu, Doreen
Kirlew, Christine
Leonard, Michael T.
Losin, Kyle J.
Marraffini, Michelle
Seo, Arnold Y.
Swanberg, Veronica
Westcott, Jennifer L.
Wood, Michael S.
Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan
Dunn, William A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Renal Nutrition: The Official Journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation

OBJECTIVE: We examined the protein anabolic effects of Pro-Stat 64, a high nitrogen-containing, enzyme-hydrolyzed, tryptophan-fortified, collagen protein supplement administrated during hemodialysis, at two different dosing regimens. DESIGN: This was a randomized, controlled, prospective study with 3 different groups: control, single dose of supplementation, and double dose of supplementation. SETTING: This study was performed at a clinical research center. PATIENTS: Six prevalent chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients were enrolled: 5 males, 1 female, 4 African Americans, and 2 Caucasians.

Author(s): 
Sundell, Mary B.
Cavanaugh, Kerri L.
Wu, Pingsheng
Shintani, Ayumi
Hakim, Raymond M.
Ikizler, T. Alp
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Conventional treatments for the articular diseases are often effective for symptom relief, but can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be effective at relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), and preliminary evidence suggests that some of these compounds may exert a favorable influence on the course of the disease.

Author(s): 
Akhtar, Nahid
Miller, Mark Js
Haqqi, Tariq M.
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Aging

Tauopathies are characterized by progressive neurodegeneration caused by intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein aggregates in the brain. The present study was designed to test whether a grape seed polyphenolic extract (GSPE) previously shown to inhibit tau protein aggregation in vitro could benefit tau-mediated neuropathology and behavior deficits in JNPL3 transgenic mice expressing a human tau protein containing the P301L mutation. Nine-month-old JNPL3 mice were treated with GSPE delivered through their drinking water for 6 months.

Author(s): 
Santa-Maria, Ismael
Diaz-Ruiz, Carmen
Ksiezak-Reding, Hanna
Chen, Alice
Ho, Lap
Wang, Jun
Pasinetti, Giulio Maria
Publication Title: 
Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of muscle mass is crucial to improving outcome and quality of life in cancer patients. Stimulating muscle protein synthesis is the metabolic basis for maintaining muscle mass, but in cancer patients normal dietary intake has minimal effects on muscle protein synthesis. Adding leucine to high protein supplements stimulates muscle protein synthesis in healthy older subjects.

Author(s): 
Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.
Safar, Ahmed
Schutzler, Scott
Memelink, Robert
Ferrando, Arny
Spencer, Horace
van Helvoort, Ardy
Wolfe, Robert R.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of muscle mass is crucial to improving outcome and quality of life in cancer patients. Stimulating muscle protein synthesis is the metabolic basis for maintaining muscle mass, but in cancer patients normal dietary intake has minimal effects on muscle protein synthesis. Adding leucine to high protein supplements stimulates muscle protein synthesis in healthy older subjects.

Author(s): 
Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.
Safar, Ahmed
Schutzler, Scott
Memelink, Robert
Ferrando, Arny
Spencer, Horace
van Helvoort, Ardy
Wolfe, Robert R.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND: The effects of essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation during moderate steady state (ie, endurance) exercise on postexercise skeletal muscle metabolism are not well described, and the potential role of supplemental leucine on muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and associated molecular responses remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: This randomized crossover study examined whether EAA supplementation with 2 different concentrations of leucine affected post-steady state exercise MPS, whole-body protein turnover, and mammalian target of rapamycin 1 (mTORC1) intracellular signaling.

Author(s): 
Pasiakos, Stefan M.
McClung, Holly L.
McClung, James P.
Margolis, Lee M.
Andersen, Nancy E.
Cloutier, Gregory J.
Pikosky, Matthew A.
Rood, Jennifer C.
Fielding, Roger A.
Young, Andrew J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Based on recent research, an upper limit of safe intake (ULSI) for leucine is proposed for healthy adults: 0.53 g/(kg·d). Because leucine has been used as a dietary supplement for many years in people practicing exercise and sport, further study with long-term exposure to leucine in this specific subpopulation should be performed to eventually adjust the ULSI.

Author(s): 
Cynober, Luc
Bier, Dennis M.
Kadowaki, Motoni
Morris, Sidney M.
Renwick, Andrew G.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

To assess the effect of each dietary caloric source on the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids, we investigated the rate of leucine oxidation before and after obese volunteers consumed one of the following diets for one week: (a) starvation, (b) 300 or 500 cal of fat/d, (c) 300 or 500 cal of carbohydrate/d, (d) 300 or 500 cal of protein/d, (e) a mixture of carbohydrate (300 cal/d) and fat (200 cal/d), or (f) a mixture of carbohydrate (300 cal/d) and protein (200 cal/d). Starvation significantly increased the rate of leucine oxidation (1.4 +/- 0.11 vs.

Author(s): 
Vazquez, J. A.
Morse, E. L.
Adibi, S. A.

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