Life Change Events

Publication Title: 
Nature
Author(s): 
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Epel, Elissa S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

BACKGROUND: Genotype x environment interaction (G x E) arises when genes influence sensitivity to the environment. G x E is easily recognized in experimental organisms that permit randomization of genotypes over fixed environmental treatments. Genotype-environment correlation (rGE) arises when genetic effects create or evoke exposure to environmental differences.

Author(s): 
Eaves, Lindon
Silberg, Judy
Erkanli, Alaattin
Publication Title: 
Psychiatrische Praxis

There is compelling evidence from family, twin and adoption studies of a substantial genetic contribution to schizophrenia. The mode of transmission is complicated and very rarely if ever involves a single gene. Rather schizophrenia results from multiple genes of small effect and their interplay with the environment. Perhaps because the overall size of the genetic effect is large, accounting for about 80 % of variance, definite environmental factors have been difficult to pin down.

Author(s): 
McGuffin, Peter
Publication Title: 
The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry

Functional capacities, such as attachment and affect regulation, object relations capacity, symbolic function and language development, now documented by neuroscientific research and epigenetics, are reviewed. Results from this research, together with other factors, are posited to have contributed to effective contemporary psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic treatments for the psychoses and schizophrenias.

Author(s): 
Gibbs, Patricia L.
Publication Title: 
Trauma, Violence & Abuse

Exposure to interpersonal violence or abuse affects the physical and emotional well-being of affected individuals. In particular, exposure to trauma during development increases the risk of psychiatric and other medical disorders beyond the risks associated with adult violence exposure. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a major mediating pathway of the stress response, contribute to the long-standing effects of early life trauma.

Author(s): 
Neigh, Gretchen N.
Gillespie, Charles F.
Nemeroff, Charles B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

Experiences during early development profoundly affect development of the central nervous system (CNS) to impart either risk for or resilience to later psychopathology. Work in the developmental neuroscience field is providing compelling data that epigenetic marking of the genome may underlie aspects of this process. Experiments in rodents continue to show that experiences during sensitive periods of development influence DNA methylation patterns of several genes.

Author(s): 
Roth, Tania L.
Sweatt, J. David
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Bulletin

The search for the causes of schizophrenia has predominantly originated from 2 research paradigms; genetics and epidemiology. While each approach has made important contributions to etiological understanding, neither has fully resolved the exact milieu of risk factors for schizophrenia, and there is growing recognition that several pathways to the onset of such disorders may exist.

Author(s): 
Kirkbride, James B.
Jones, Peter B.
Publication Title: 
Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences

Although converging epidemiological evidence links exposure to stressful life events with increased risk for affective spectrum disorders, there is extraordinary interindividual variability in vulnerability to adversity. The environmentally moderated penetrance of genetic variation is thought to play a major role in determining who will either develop disease or remain resilient.

Author(s): 
Lesch, Klaus-Peter
Publication Title: 
L'Encephale

Kindling and behavioural sensitization were probably the first among the animal models of affective disorders, to suggest that genes-environment interactions were likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of these disorders. Cross-sensitization among stressors, drugs of abuse and illness episodes was deemed to be supported by the induction of a series of transcription factors, such as the proto-oncogene c-fos that subsequently alter gene expression by binding at DNA sites and inducing mRNAs for substances that may exert effects over long time periods.

Author(s): 
Azorin, J.-M.
Kaladjian, A.
Fakra, E.
Da Fonseca, D.
Adida, M.
Maurel, M.
Richieri, R.
Bottai, T.
Pringuey, D.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Psychiatry

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In a context of global concern about the consequences of stress and extreme adversities, advances in theory and methods for studying human resilience have ushered in a new era of integrative, biopsychosocial research. This review highlights recent theory, findings, and implications of resilience research on young people. RECENT FINDINGS: Resilience research has shifted toward dynamic system models with multiple levels of interaction, including research on the neurobiology of stress and adaption, epigenetic processes, and disasters.

Author(s): 
Sapienza, Julianna K.
Masten, Ann S.

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