Likelihood Functions

Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Meditation is a family of mental practices that encompasses a wide array of techniques employing distinctive mental strategies. We systematically reviewed 78 functional neuroimaging (fMRI and PET) studies of meditation, and used activation likelihood estimation to meta-analyze 257 peak foci from 31 experiments involving 527 participants.

Author(s): 
Fox, Kieran C. R.
Dixon, Matthew L.
Nijeboer, Savannah
Girn, Manesh
Floman, James L.
Lifshitz, Michael
Ellamil, Melissa
Sedlmeier, Peter
Christoff, Kalina
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Numerous studies have begun to address how the brain's gray and white matter may be shaped by meditation. This research is yet to be integrated, however, and two fundamental questions remain: Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? If so, what is the magnitude of these differences? To address these questions, we reviewed and meta-analyzed 123 brain morphology differences from 21 neuroimaging studies examining ?300 meditation practitioners.

Author(s): 
Fox, Kieran C. R.
Nijeboer, Savannah
Dixon, Matthew L.
Floman, James L.
Ellamil, Melissa
Rumak, Samuel P.
Sedlmeier, Peter
Christoff, Kalina
Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

The analysis of data collected by applying information technology in daily practice opens the possibility of validating homeopathic prescribing symptoms. The author has collected data on repertory rubrics, homeopathic medicines prescribed, and clinical outcomes, for 16 years. As an example of clinical verification the outcomes of patients prescribed Veratrum album are correlated against rubrics. Remarkable results were obtained when Verat-a was presented to 24 patients, 52 rubrics were used. The data were analysed using the classical method and the likelihood ratios method.

Author(s): 
Van Wassenhoven, M.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Medical Genetics

The hypothesis that a gene for susceptibility to psychosis (specifically in the X-Y homologous class) is located on the sex chromosomes has been proposed. Such a gene would account for the excess of sex chromosome anomalous males and females in populations of patients with psychosis, a tendency towards concordance by sex within families, and sex differences associated with psychosis and its underlying brain pathology. In earlier studies we observed small positive LOD scores in Xp11, and in a more recent and larger cohort of 178 sibling pairs, a peak multipoint nonparametric LOD score of 1.

Author(s): 
DeLisi, L. E.
Shaw, S.
Sherrington, R.
Nanthakumar, B.
Shields, G.
Smith, A. B.
Wellman, N.
Larach, V. W.
Loftus, J.
Razi, K.
Stewart, J.
Comazzi, M.
Vita, A.
de Hert, M.
Crow, T. J.
Publication Title: 
Genes, Brain, and Behavior

The results of a large body of candidate gene studies of behavioural and psychiatric phenotypes have been largely inconclusive, with most findings failing to replicate reliably.

Author(s): 
MunafÚ, M. R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Biosocial Science

This paper proposes a causal model of sexual activity among a randomly selected sample of 305 Junio secondary school girls in Zambia. The results indicate that liberal sexual attitudes influence romantic involvement with boys. Emotional involvement is likely to result in sexual activity. Traditional courtship forms are slowly being replaced by modern patterns of courtship behaviour. Policy and programme implications are discussed.

Author(s): 
Pillai, V. K.
Barton, T.
Benefo, K.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Adolescence

Using data on 838 middle adolescents, the current study compared the associations between three types of romantic involvement and alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Off-time (i.e., serious romantic relationships) but not on-time (i.e., romantic socializing and dating) types of involvement were expected to be associated with increased odds of using each substance. Participating in romantic socializing was unrelated to substance use and dating was only positively associated with alcohol use.

Author(s): 
Beckmeyer, Jonathon J.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the personality characteristics of a group of participants in Phase 1 studies and to study the relation between the personality traits and the adverse events during participation. METHODS: Study population consisted of 139 healthy volunteers to Phase 1 studies. Personality was assessed through the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and adverse events were monitored during participation.

Author(s): 
Almeida, L.
Falc„o, A.
Vaz-da-Silva, M.
Coelho, R.
Albino-Teixeira, A.
Soares-da-Silva, P.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The theory of inclusive fitness has transformed our understanding of cooperation and altruism. However, the proximate psychological underpinnings of altruism are less well understood, and it has been argued that emotional closeness mediates the relationship between genetic relatedness and altruism. In this study, we use a real-life costly behaviour (travel time) to dissociate the effects of genetic relatedness from emotional closeness. Participants travelled further to see more closely related kin, as compared to more distantly related kin.

Author(s): 
Pollet, Thomas V.
Roberts, Sam G. B.
Dunbar, Robin I. M.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The combination therapy of the Artemisinin-derivative Artemether (ART) with Lumefantrine (LM) (Coartem®) is an important malaria treatment regimen in many endemic countries. Resistance to Artemisinin has already been reported, and it is feared that LM resistance (LMR) could also evolve quickly. Therefore molecular markers which can be used to track Coartem® efficacy are urgently needed. Often, stable resistance arises from initial, unstable phenotypes that can be identified in vitro.

Author(s): 
Mwai, Leah
Diriye, Abdi
Masseno, Victor
Muriithi, Steven
Feltwell, Theresa
Musyoki, Jennifer
Lemieux, Jacob
Feller, Avi
Mair, Gunnar R.
Marsh, Kevin
Newbold, Chris
Nzila, Alexis
Carret, Céline K.

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