Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products.
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) catalyzes the conversion of stearate (18:0) to oleate (18:1n-9) and of palmitate (16:0) to palmitoleate (16:1), which are key steps in triglyceride synthesis in the fatty acid metabolic network. This study investigated the role of SCD1 in fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 cells using SCD1 inhibitors and stable isotope tracers. HepG2 cells were cultured with [U-(13)C]stearate, [U-(13)C]palmitate, or [1,2-(13)C]acetate and (1) DMSO, (2) compound CGX0168 or CGX0290, or (3) trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood. Mice lacking PPARgamma in immune and epithelial cells and PPARgamma-expressing littermates were fed either control or CLA-supplemented (1 g CLA/100 g) diets to determine the role of PPARgamma in inflammation-induced CRC.
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating and widespread immune-mediated illness of unknown etiology. Current treatments are modestly successful and with significant side-effects. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current understanding of mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in IBD.
The inverse relationship between fat in bone marrow and bone mass in the skeleton of aging subjects is well known. However, there is no precise therapy for the treatment of bone marrow adiposity. We investigated the ability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fish oil (FO), alone or in combination, to modulate bone loss using 12 months old C57Bl/6J mice fed 10% corn oil diet as control or supplemented with 0.5% CLA or 5% FO or 0.5% CLA+5% FO for 6 months.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metabolic effects of dietary fat quality in people with type 2 diabetes are not well-understood. The study objective was to evaluate effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower (SAF) oils on glycemia, blood lipids, and inflammation. The hypothesis we tested is that dietary oils improve glycemia, lipids, and inflammatory markers in a time-dependent way that follows accumulation of linoleic acid and CLA isomers in serum of subjects supplemented with dietary oils.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation decreases adipose mass and increases bone mass in mice. Recent clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of CLA on reducing weight and adipose mass in humans. This article reviews possible biological mechanisms of action of CLA on bone metabolism, focusing on modulation of nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity to steer mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward an adipose and away from an osteoblast lineage.
The bone undergoes continuous remodeling of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption to maintain proper bone mass. It is also reported that bone marrow adiposity has a reciprocal role in osteoblasts due to their same origin from mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, one of the key mediators of adipogenesis, peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), plays a significant role in osteoblastogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. One dietary component that is known to have significant impact on adiposity and bone mass is conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).
Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Linoleic acid (LA) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in human diets, a major component of human tissues, and the direct precursor to the bioactive oxidized LA metabolites (OXLAMs), 9- and 13 hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE) and 9- and 13-oxo-octadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-oxoODE). These four OXLAMs have been mechanistically linked to pathological conditions ranging from cardiovascular disease to chronic pain.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating and widespread immune-mediated illness characterized by excessive inflammatory and effector mucosal responses leading to tissue destruction at the gastrointestinal tract. Interactions among the immune system, the commensal microbiota and the host genotype are thought to underlie the pathogenesis of IBD. However, the precise etiology of IBD remains unknown. Diet-induced changes in the composition of the gut microbiome can modulate the induction of regulatory versus effector immune responses at the gut mucosa and improve health outcomes.