ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fruits of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. (Combretaceae) and T. chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) are important components of triphala, a popular Ayurvedic formulation, for treating diabetes in Indian traditional medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the constituents of T. bellerica and T. chebula fruit extracts on PPAR? and PPAR? signaling/expression, cellular glucose uptake and adipogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PPAR? and PPAR?
Calorie restriction extends lifespan in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. In yeast, the SIR2 gene mediates the life-extending effects of calorie restriction. Here we show that the mammalian SIR2 orthologue, Sirt1 (sirtuin 1), activates a critical component of calorie restriction in mammals; that is, fat mobilization in white adipocytes. Upon food withdrawal Sirt1 protein binds to and represses genes controlled by the fat regulator PPAR-gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), including genes mediating fat storage.
Autophagy is a highly regulated intracellular process involved in the turnover of most cellular constituents and in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. It is well-established that the basal autophagic activity of living cells decreases with age, thus contributing to the accumulation of damaged macromolecules during aging. Conversely, the activity of this catabolic pathway is required for lifespan extension in animal models such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster.
Severe mitochondria deficiency leads to a number of devastating degenerative disorders, yet, mild mitochondrial dysfunction in different species, including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, can have pro-longevity effects. This apparent paradox indicates that cellular adaptation to partial mitochondrial stress can induce beneficial responses, but how this is achieved is largely unknown. Complete absence of frataxin, the mitochondrial protein defective in patients with Friedreich's ataxia, is lethal in C.
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (official symbol: NFE2L2, alias: Nrf2) is a master regulator of antioxidant defense system, which makes it an attractive target for manipulations that aim to increase cellular resistance to oxidative stress.
Understanding mechanisms underlying longevity, and endeavor towards the specific goals of alleviating frailty in old age, require a comprehensive approach that considers the various theoretical and experimental approaches, as well as compiling the data on humans. This logistic has underlined the program of the conference, and is reflected in the present special issue. Considerable volume of data now point to distinct genes that are associated with exceptional longevity in humans, as reflected from the articles in this volume.
Subjects with exceptional longevity have a lower incidence and/or significant delay in the onset of age-related disease, and their family members may inherit biological factors that modulate aging processes and disease susceptibility. In a case control study, we aim to determine phenotype and genotype of exceptional longevity in a genetically homogenous population (Ashkenazi Jews), and their offspring, while an age-matched control group of Ashkenazi Jews was used as control groups.
Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine = Revue Roumaine De MÈdecine Interne
Decreased high density lipoproteins (HDL) plasma levels are a recognized independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Attempts were therefore initiated to pharmacologically raise plasma HDL cholesterol, and the most impressive increase was obtained by inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) by means of the synthetic compound torcetrapib. Clinical trials were however disappointing, as torcetrapib increased mortality and did not reduce the progression of atherosclerosis.
BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Recent work on a small European cave salamander (Proteus anguinus) has revealed that it has exceptional longevity, yet it appears to have unexceptional defences against oxidative damage. This paper comes at the end of a string of other studies that are calling into question the free-radical damage theory of ageing. This theory rose to prominence in the 1990s as the dominant theory for why we age and die. Despite substantial correlative evidence to support it, studies in the last five years have raised doubts over its importance.
As increasing numbers of individuals reach very advanced age, it is important to understand the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on both the achievement of exceptional longevity as well as the maintenance of optimal functional capacity. This includes determining the most appropriate biomarkers for monitoring changes in health and nutrition status and response to therapy in oldest old individuals.