Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is both a coenzyme for hydride-transfer enzymes and a substrate for NAD(+)-consuming enzymes, which include ADP-ribose transferases, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, cADP-ribose synthases and sirtuins. Recent results establish protective roles for NAD(+) that might be applicable therapeutically to prevent neurodegenerative conditions and to fight Candida glabrata infection.
STUDY DESIGN: Nonviral transfection of nucleus pulposus cells with a telomerase expression construct to assess the effects on cellular lifespan, function, karyotypic stability, and transformation properties. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether telomerase gene therapy can extend the cellular lifespan while retaining functionality of nucleus pulposus cells in a safe manner. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Degeneration of the intervertebral disc is an age-related condition in which cells responsible for the maintenance and health of the disc deteriorate with age.
Centenarians exist at the extreme of life expectancy and are rare. A number of pedigree and molecular genetic studies indicate that a significant component of exceptional longevity is genetically influenced. Furthermore, the recent discovery of a genetic locus on chromosome 4 indicates the powerful potential of studying centenarians for genetic factors that significantly modulate aging and susceptibility to age-related diseases. These studies include siblings and children of centenarians.
As the elderly population is increasing rapidly, there is a lot of scientific interest in clarifying the differential life-style, genetic, biochemical and molecular factors contributing to mortality or exceptional longevity. Within the framework of the ZINCAGE project, 249 old (60-85 years) and nonagenarian Greek subjects (>/=85 years old) were recruited and anthropometrical, blood and biochemical indices as well as blood pressure measurements were obtained.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Telomere length in humans is emerging as a biomarker of aging because its shortening is associated with aging-related diseases and early mortality. However, genetic mechanisms responsible for these associations are not known. Here, in a cohort of Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians, their offspring, and offspring-matched controls, we studied the inheritance and maintenance of telomere length and variations in two major genes associated with telomerase enzyme activity, hTERT and hTERC.
BACKGROUND: Telomere length, an indicator of ageing and longevity, has been correlated with several biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease in both Arab children and adults. It is not known, however, whether or not telomere length is a highly conserved inheritable trait in this homogeneous cohort, where age-related diseases are highly prevalent. As such, the aim of this study was to address the inheritability of telomere length in Saudi families and the impact of cardiometabolic disease biomarkers on telomere length.
Despite great interest in the role of lipids in overall and disease-free survival, virtually no information is available on the lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of persons over 90 years of age. Furthermore, the genetic underpinnings of atherosclerosis and the particular genetic factors responsible for protection against coronary artery disease remain speculative.
Annali Italiani Di Medicina Interna: Organo Ufficiale Della Societ‡ Italiana Di Medicina Interna
The progressive lengthening of the average life span and the expanding elderly population high-light the phenomenon of "centenarianism" or extreme longevity in Italy. A large number of Italian Geriatric and Gerontology Centers throughout Italy have joined in the Italian Multicenter Study on Centenarians which evaluates the clinical and biological conditions of centenarians. A census of centenarians in Italy as of December 31, 1993 is presently in course. Preliminary data indicate that about 6000 subjects were alive on that day.