Lipocalins are a family of proteins characterized by a conserved eight-stranded ?-barrel structure with a ligand-binding pocket. They perform a wide range of biological functions and this functional multiplicity must relate to the lipid partner involved. Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) and its insect homologues, Lazarillo (Laz) and neural Lazarillo (NLaz), share common ancestral functions like longevity, stress resistance and lipid metabolism regulation, coexisting with very specialized functions, like courtship behavior.
Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), a member of the Lipocalin family, is the gene most up-regulated with age in the mammalian brain. Its expression strongly correlates with aging-associated neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases. Two homologues of ApoD expressed in the Drosophila brain, Glial Lazarillo (GLaz) and Neural Lazarillo (NLaz), are known to alter longevity in male flies. However, sex differences in the aging process have not been explored so far for these genes.
OBJECTIVE: Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is up-regulated in osteoarthritis (OA) and usually presents as multiple bands when synovial fluid (SF) from OA patients is analyzed by zymography. Among these bands is an approximately 125-130-kd band for high molecular weight (HMW) gelatinase, which has not been characterized. This study was undertaken to characterize the HMW MMP activity in OA SF. METHODS: MMP activity in OA SF was determined by gelatin zymography. Recombinant MMPs were used to identify MMP activity on the zymogram.
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
BACKGROUND: Because of the risk of performing renal biopsies in children with co-morbid conditions, we carried out this study to identify candidate protein biomarkers in the urine of HIV-infected children with renal disease. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS: Urine samples from HIV-infected children with biopsy proven HIV-nephropathy (HIVAN; n = 4), HIV-associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HIV-HUS; n = 2), or no renal disease (n = 3) were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and proteomic methods.
Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a novel apolipoprotein that is reportedly necessary for pre beta HDL formation; however, its detailed function remains unknown. We investigated the biogenesis and properties of apoM and its effects on the initial steps of nascent pre beta HDL assembly by ABCA1 in HEK293 cells. Transiently transfected apoM was localized primarily in the endomembrane compartment.
The plasticity of macrophages is evident from their dual role in inflammation and resolution of inflammation that are accompanied by changes in the transcriptome and metabolome. Along these lines, we have previously demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium increases macrophage production of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived anti-inflammatory 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) and decreases the proinflammatory PGE(2).
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Prostaglandins (PGs) are a family of cellular messengers exerting diverse homeostatic and pathophysiologic effects. Recently, several studies reported significant increases of PGI(2) and PGF(2α) after the inhibition of microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression, which indicated that PGH(2) metabolism might be redistributed when the PGE(2) pathway is blocked.
Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) triggers the production of inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and prostaglandins (PGs) by pulmonary macrophages. Here, we investigated if ROS influenced PGs production in response to LPS treatment in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). We observed that pretreatment of BMDM with two structurally unrelated ROS scavengers, MnTMPyP and EUK-134, not only prevented LPS-induced ROS accumulation, but also attenuated the LPS-induced PGD(2), but not PGE(2), production.