Lipolysis

Publication Title: 
Nature

Calorie restriction extends lifespan in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. In yeast, the SIR2 gene mediates the life-extending effects of calorie restriction. Here we show that the mammalian SIR2 orthologue, Sirt1 (sirtuin 1), activates a critical component of calorie restriction in mammals; that is, fat mobilization in white adipocytes. Upon food withdrawal Sirt1 protein binds to and represses genes controlled by the fat regulator PPAR-gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), including genes mediating fat storage.

Author(s): 
Picard, FrÈdÈric
Kurtev, Martin
Chung, Namjin
Topark-Ngarm, Acharawan
Senawong, Thanaset
Machado De Oliveira, Rita
Leid, Mark
McBurney, Michael W.
Guarente, Leonard
Publication Title: 
Genes & Development

Adaptation to nutrient scarcity depends on the activation of metabolic programs to efficiently use internal reserves of energy. Activation of these programs in abundant food regimens can extend life span. However, the common molecular and metabolic changes that promote adaptation to nutritional stress and extend life span are mostly unknown. Here we present a response to fasting, enrichment of ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which promotes starvation resistance and extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Upon fasting, C.

Author(s): 
O'Rourke, Eyleen J.
Kuballa, Petric
Xavier, Ramnik
Ruvkun, Gary
Publication Title: 
Nature

Calorie restriction extends lifespan in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. In yeast, the SIR2 gene mediates the life-extending effects of calorie restriction. Here we show that the mammalian SIR2 orthologue, Sirt1 (sirtuin 1), activates a critical component of calorie restriction in mammals; that is, fat mobilization in white adipocytes. Upon food withdrawal Sirt1 protein binds to and represses genes controlled by the fat regulator PPAR-gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), including genes mediating fat storage.

Author(s): 
Picard, FrÈdÈric
Kurtev, Martin
Chung, Namjin
Topark-Ngarm, Acharawan
Senawong, Thanaset
Machado De Oliveira, Rita
Leid, Mark
McBurney, Michael W.
Guarente, Leonard
Publication Title: 
Current Aging Science

Accumulation of oxidatively altered cell components may play a role in the age-related cell deterioration and associated diseases. Caloric restriction is the most robust anti-aging intervention that extends lifespan and retards the appearance of age-associated diseases. Autophagy is a highly conserved cell-repair process in which the cytoplasm, including excess or aberrant organelles, is sequestered into double-membrane vesicles and delivered to the degradative vacuoles. Autophagy has an essential role in adaptation to fasting and changing environmental conditions.

Author(s): 
Cavallini, Gabriella
Donati, Alessio
Gori, Zina
Bergamini, Ettore
Publication Title: 
Cell Metabolism

Changes in fat content have been associated with dietary restriction (DR), but whether they play a causal role in mediating various responses to DR remains unknown. We demonstrate that upon DR, Drosophila melanogaster shift their metabolism toward increasing fatty-acid synthesis and breakdown, which is required for various responses to DR. Inhibition of fatty-acid synthesis or oxidation genes specifically in the muscle tissue inhibited life-span extension upon DR. Furthermore, DR enhances spontaneous activity of flies, which was found to be dependent on the enhanced fatty-acid metabolism.

Author(s): 
Katewa, Subhash D.
Demontis, Fabio
Kolipinski, Marysia
Hubbard, Alan
Gill, Matthew S.
Perrimon, Norbert
Melov, Simon
Kapahi, Pankaj
Publication Title: 
Genes & Development

Adaptation to nutrient scarcity depends on the activation of metabolic programs to efficiently use internal reserves of energy. Activation of these programs in abundant food regimens can extend life span. However, the common molecular and metabolic changes that promote adaptation to nutritional stress and extend life span are mostly unknown. Here we present a response to fasting, enrichment of ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which promotes starvation resistance and extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Upon fasting, C.

Author(s): 
O'Rourke, Eyleen J.
Kuballa, Petric
Xavier, Ramnik
Ruvkun, Gary
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHOPARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salacia reticulata, a herbal medicine which has been used for the treatment of early diabetes in Ayurvedic medicine, is reported to have an anti-obesity effect and to be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and other metabolic diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Salacia reticulata with special attention to the adipocytes as the tissue primarily involved in the pathology of metabolic diseases.

Author(s): 
Shimada, Tsutomu
Nagai, Eiichi
Harasawa, Yukiko
Watanabe, Michiru
Negishi, Kenichi
Akase, Tomoko
Sai, Yoshimichi
Miyamoto, Ken-ichi
Aburada, Masaki
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Plant extracts continue to represent an untapped source of renewable therapeutic compounds for the treatment and prevention of illnesses including chronic metabolic disorders. With the increase in worldwide obesity and its related morbidities, the need for identifying safe and effective treatments is also rising. As such, use of primary human adipose-derived stem cells represents a physiologically relevant cell system to screen for bioactive agents in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related complications.

Author(s): 
Buehrer, Benjamin M.
Duffin, David J.
Lea-Currie, Y. Renee
Ribnicky, David
Raskin, Ilya
Stephens, Jacqueline M.
Cefalu, William T.
Gimble, Jeffrey M.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

The breakdown of triglycerides, or lipolysis, is a tightly controlled process that regulates fat mobilization in accord with an animal's energy needs. It is well established that lipolysis is stimulated by hormones that signal energy demand and is suppressed by the antilipolytic hormone insulin. However, much still remains to be learned about regulation of lipolysis by intracellular signaling pathways in adipocytes.

Author(s): 
Yang, Ri-Yao
Yu, Lan
Graham, James L.
Hsu, Daniel K.
Lloyd, K. C. Kent
Havel, Peter J.
Liu, Fu-Tong
Publication Title: 
Nutrients

Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs.

Author(s): 
Forrest, Lolita M.
Lough, Christopher M.
Chung, Soonkyu
Boudyguina, Elena Y.
Gebre, Abraham K.
Smith, Thomas L.
Colvin, Perry L.
Parks, John S.

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