Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men, women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy, watery and swollen eyes.
Terminalia chebula, native to Southeast Asia, is a popular medicinal plant in Ayurveda. It has been previously reported to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory efficacy. In this study, we aimed to investigate if fruit extract from T. chebula might protect neuronal cells against ischemia and related diseases by reduction of oxidative damage and inflammation in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD-R) ischemia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cell death.
BACKGROUND: Lifespan extension is achieved through long-term application of dietary restriction (DR), and benefits of short-term dietary restriction on acute stress and inflammation have been observed. So far, the effects of short-term DR in humans are relatively unknown. We hypothesized that short-term DR in humans reduces the acute phase response following a well defined surgical trauma. METHODS: Thirty live kidney donors were randomized between 30% preoperative dietary restriction followed by 1 d of fasting (n=17) or a 4 d ad libitum regimen (n=13) prior to surgery.
In mice, monocytes that exhibit a pro-inflammatory profile enter muscle tissue after muscle injury and are crucial for clearance of necrotic tissue and stimulation of muscle progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to test if pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated (M1) monocytes relates to muscle mass and strength in humans. This study included 191 male and 195 female subjects (mean age 64.2 years (SD 6.4) and 61.9 ± 6.4, respectively) of the Leiden Longevity Study.
The relative avidity and titer of antibodies representing the 4 immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses (IgG1-4) reactive with Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide (-LPS), streptokinase (SK) and tetanus toxoid (TT) in the sera of patients having adult periodontitis and of healthy controls were measured. Patient antibody titers to P. gingivalis and P. gingivalis-LPS were found to be significantly elevated for IgG, IgG1 (no P. gingivalis-LPS antibodies) and IgG2. The predominant antibody response to P. gingivalis and P. gingivalis-LPS occurred in the IgG2 subclass.
Catalepsy (animal hypnosis, tonic immobility) is a type of passive defensive behavior. Its exaggerated form is a syndrome of some psychopathological disorders. Numerous neurotransmitters have impact on the regulation of catalepsy. In this paper we demonstrated the involvement of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the mechanism of cataleptic immobility.
Artemisinin is a natural product used as an alternative drug in the treatment of severe and multidrug-resistant malaria. In the present work we show that artemisinin shares with other sesquiterpene lactones the ability to inhibit the activation of the nuclear factor NF-kB: by this mechanism, artemisinin, as well as parthenolide, inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in cytokine-stimulated human astrocytoma T67 cells. These results suggest that artemisinin, in addition to its antiparasitic properties, could also exert a therapeutic effect on neurological complications of malaria.
In the present study artemisinin (ART) was found to have potent anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of sepsis induced by CpG-containing oligodeoxy-nucleotides (CpG ODN), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-killed Escherichia coli 35218 or live E. coli. Furthermore, we found that ART protected mice from a lethal challenge by CpG ODN, LPS, or heat-killed E. coli in a dose-dependent manner and that the protection was related to a reduction in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha).
AIM: To elucidate the anti-inflammatory potentials and underlying mechanisms of SM905, a novel artemisinin derivative, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. METHODS: Nitric oxide (NO) generation, cytokine production, and the protein expression levels of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were examined using a Griess assay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Western blotting assay, respectively. The mRNA expression was measured using real-time PCR.
Microglial activation plays an important role in neuroinflammation, which contributes to neuronal damage, and inhibition of microglial activation may have therapeutic benefits that could alleviate the progression of neurodegeneration. Recent studies have indicated that the antimalarial agent artemisinin has the ability to inhibit NF-?B activation. In this study, the inhibitory effects of artemisinin on the production of proinflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary microglia.