Despite evidence for heritable variation in cannabis involvement and the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, no consistent patterns have emerged from candidate endocannabinoid (eCB) genetic association studies of cannabis involvement. Given interactions between eCB and stress systems and associations between childhood stress and cannabis involvement, it may be important to consider childhood adversity in the context of eCB-related genetic variation.
Effects of kumari asav, kumari kalp, arogyavardhini and tamra bhasma used in Ayurved and Siddha medicine for the treatment of liver disorders have been studied on acid, alkaline and lipoprotein lipase activities of liver, adipose tissue and kidney and hormone sensitive lipase activity of adipose tissue following CCl4 induced liver injury in albino rats. The treatments of CCl4 and the above drugs show significant alterations in the lipolytic activities of liver, adipose tissue and kidney. Role of these enzymes during hepatoprotection by above drugs has been discussed.
Abhrak bhasma is a commonly used ayurvedic drug against many diseases including hepatitis. It is tested in albino rats using a model of hepatitis induced by a single dose of CCl4 (3 ml/kg body wt). Different doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt) were tested to decide the dose related hepatoprotective efficacy. The centrolobular necrosis induced by single dose of CCl4 was reduced significantly by abhrak bhasma (10 mg) and liver histology was also protected by 20 mg dose.
Salacia oblonga (SO) root is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obese properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, a nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of lipid metabolism.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of 2-hydroxy 4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA), the active principle of Hemidesmus indicus, an indigenous Ayurvedic medicinal plant in India. We investigated the effect of HMBA on hyperlipidaemia induced by ethanol, exploring food intake, body weight, and hepatic and plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Male Wistar rats weighing 130-180 g were given ethanol (5 g kg(-1) p.o.) daily for 30 days. Subsequently, ethanol-fed rats were given HMBA intragastrically at a dose of 200 microg kg(-1) per day for 30 days.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia arjuna - stem bark extract is traditionally used as cardiotonic in Ayurvedic medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was aimed to evaluate the molecular basis for cardioprotective potential of Terminalia arjuna (TA) stem bark, using cell cultures of human monocytic (THP-1) and human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs).
BACKGROUND: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown to be associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, fatty liver, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that adverse metabolic effects of chronic consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages are a consequence of increased circulating glucose and insulin excursions, ie, dietary glycemic index (GI). OBJECTIVE: We determined whether the greater adverse effects of fructose than of glucose consumption were associated with glucose and insulin exposures.
AIMS: Delayed lipoprotein clearance is associated with atherosclerosis. This study examined whether chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), can lead to hyperlipidaemia by inhibiting clearance of triglyceride rich lipoproteins (TRLP). METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6J mice on high-cholesterol diet were exposed to 4 weeks of CIH or chronic intermittent air (control). FIO(2) was decreased to 6.5% once per minute during the 12 h light phase in the CIH group. After the exposure, we measured fasting lipid profile.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea is a risk factor for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis, which have been attributed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Intermittent hypoxia inhibits a key enzyme of lipoprotein clearance, lipoprotein lipase, and up-regulates a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4), in adipose tissue. The effects and mechanisms of Angptl4 up-regulation in sleep apnea are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether CIH induces dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis by increasing adipose Angptl4 via hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1).
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities of skeletal muscles, heart and adipose tissue were investigated during feeding, prolonged food restriction, and refeeding. The influence of the duration of starvation on adipose tissue LPL activity was to cause it to decrease throughout starvation, whereas heart LPL activity increased during the first 24 hours of fasting and then declined for the remainder of the fast. Starvation of 10-week-old female, lean and obese rats to 80% of initial body weight required 5 and 9 days, respectively.