JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association
CONTEXT: Individuals with exceptional longevity have a lower incidence and/or significant delay in the onset of age-related disease, and their family members may inherit biological factors that modulate aging processes and disease susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To identify specific biological and genetic factors that are associated with or reliably define a human longevity phenotype.
As increasing numbers of individuals reach very advanced age, it is important to understand the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on both the achievement of exceptional longevity as well as the maintenance of optimal functional capacity. This includes determining the most appropriate biomarkers for monitoring changes in health and nutrition status and response to therapy in oldest old individuals.
In 2011, dozens of children and pregnant women in Korea died by exposure to sterilizer for household humidifier, such as Oxy(Æ) and Cefu(Æ). Until now, however, it remains unknown how the sterilizer affect the human health to cause the acute deaths. To find its toxicity for organ, we investigated the putative toxicity of the sterilizer in the cardiovascular system. The sterilizers, polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG, Cefu(Æ)), and oligo-[2-(2-ethoxy)-ethoxyethyl)-guanidinium-chloride (PGH, Oxy(Æ)) were treated to human lipoproteins, macrophages, and dermal fibroblast cells.
In mice, monocytes that exhibit a pro-inflammatory profile enter muscle tissue after muscle injury and are crucial for clearance of necrotic tissue and stimulation of muscle progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to test if pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated (M1) monocytes relates to muscle mass and strength in humans. This study included 191 male and 195 female subjects (mean age 64.2 years (SD 6.4) and 61.9 ± 6.4, respectively) of the Leiden Longevity Study.
Despite great interest in the role of lipids in overall and disease-free survival, virtually no information is available on the lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of persons over 90 years of age. Furthermore, the genetic underpinnings of atherosclerosis and the particular genetic factors responsible for protection against coronary artery disease remain speculative.
Changes in lipid metabolism with age result in lower total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein concentrations. There is no evidence that longevity and lipid profiles are influenced by genetic make-up. It is difficult to establish an optimum total serum cholesterol in the elderly but values established in younger subjects give a guide. High-density lipoprotein may be even more protective in the elderly and could turn out to be a better predictor of coronary disease. Screening for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia should be carried out in the elderly.
Most authorities recommend a prudent diet, moderate exercise, and the maintenance of ideal body weight Although lowering total cholesterol and LDL levels has been demonstrated to lower CHD risk, the results of major clinical trials do not indicate a reduction in overall mortality. CHD is a complicated, multifaceted disease. In addition to recognized risk factors, there may be many more that have yet to be identified. With this in mind, it is important that the nurse does not place unmitigated stress on patients to make radical changes in diet and lifestyle.