Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a major challenge to health professionals. A large number of the world's population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation (Aller-7) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum, which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia chebula has an esteemed origin in Indian mythology; its fruits are used to treat many diseases such as digestive, diabetes, colic pain, chronic cough, sore throat, asthma, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: The water or ethanolic extracts of the fruits were reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and radio-protector properties. The present study is to isolate and identify the compounds that inhibit COX and 5-LOX, the key enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis.
Oxygenation of arachidonic acid is increased in inflamed tissues. In this condition products of two enzymic pathways--the cyclooxygenase and the 5-lipoxygenase producing respectively prostaglandins and leukotrienes--are elevated. Of the cyclooxygenase products, PGE2 and of the lipoxygenase products, LTB4 are the strongest candidates for mediating inflammation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which inhibit the cyclooxygenase, and corticosteroids are used to treat such disorders. Both types of drugs produce adverse side-effects on prolonged use.
Maharasnadhi Quathar (MRQ) is a polyherbal preparation recommended by Ayurvedic medical practitioners for treatment of arthritic conditions. An investigation has been carried out with rats and human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, to determine the anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of MRQ. Results obtained demonstrate that MRQ can significantly and dose-dependently inhibit carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (the inhibition at 3h was greater than at 1h after induction of oedema).
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cissus quadrangularis is an ancient medicinal plant. It is an active ingredient of one Ayurvedic formula called "Laksha Gogglu". Its stem is used in food preparation in India. Traditionally it is used to treat various diseases like asthma, indigestion, ear diseases, irregular menstruation, skin diseases, piles, fractured bones, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the plant extracts to inhibit cycloxygenase (COX-1), cycloxygenase (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme activity.
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Westernized populations. The monocyte is a crucial cell in the genesis of the atherosclerotic lesion and is present during all stages of atherosclerosis. alpha-Tocopherol (AT) is the most active component of the vitamin E family and is the principal and most potent lipid-soluble antioxidant in plasma and LDL.
Dietary gammalinolenic acid (GLA), a potent inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and suppressor of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), can attenuate the clinical course of rheumatoid arthritics, with negligible side effects. Since Zileuton, also an inhibitor of 5-LOX, attenuates asthma but with an undesirable side effect, we investigated whether dietary GLA would suppress biosynthesis of PMN-LTB4 isolated from asthma patients and attenuate asthma. Twenty-four mild-moderate asthma patients (16-75 years) were randomized to receive either 2.0 g daily GLA (borage oil) or corn oil (placebo) for 12 months.
Leukotrienes generated by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-catalyzed reaction are key regulators of inflammation. In ionophore-stimulated (A23187; 1-2.5 μM) human blood neutrophils or differentiated HL-60 cells, vitamin E forms differentially inhibited leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) with an IC(50) of 5-20 μM for γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol (δT), and γ-tocotrienol, but a much higher IC(50) for α-tocopherol.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Myrtucommulone (MC) and semimyrtucommulone (S-MC) are unique oligomeric, nonprenylated acylphloroglucinols contained in the leaves of myrtle (Myrtus communis). Although extracts of myrtle have been traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders, studies addressing select cellular or molecular pharmacological properties of these extracts or specific ingredients thereof are rare.