NaCT (sodium-coupled citrate transporter) is an Na(+)-coupled citrate transporter identified recently in mammals that mediates the cellular uptake of citrate. It is expressed predominantly in the liver. NaCT is structurally and functionally related to the product of the Indy (I'm not dead yet) gene in Drosophila, the dysfunction of which leads to lifespan extension. Here, we show that NaCT mediates the utilization of extracellular citrate for fat synthesis in human liver cells, and that the process is stimulated by lithium.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
In many individuals with major neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, their disease characteristics are consistent with a neuroprogressive illness. This includes progressive structural brain changes, cognitive and functional decline, poorer treatment response and an increasing vulnerability to relapse with chronicity.
Huntington's disease (HD) is a lethal, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions at exon 1 of the huntingtin (Htt) gene, which encodes for a mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt). Prominent symptoms of HD include motor dysfunction, characterized by chorea; psychiatric disturbances such as mood and personality changes; and cognitive decline that may lead to dementia.
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science
BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium in drinking water may have a protective effect on suicide mortality. AIMS: To evaluate the association between local lithium levels in drinking water and suicide mortality at district level in Austria. METHOD: A nationwide sample of 6460 lithium measurements was examined for association with suicide rates per 100,000 population and suicide standardised mortality ratios across all 99 Austrian districts.
De Clerembault identified a syndrome associated with delusional loving, and it has since been described in association with various diagnoses including paranoia, schizophrenia, affective disorder, and mental retardation. The authors document its coexistence with bipolar disorder and its response to lithium.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
The effects of lithium and disulfiram on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system and hexobarbital (HX)-induced hypnosis were studied. Treatment with lithium significantly prolonged HX hypnosis. Disulfiram, a potent inhibitor of brain aldehyde dehydrogenase, also produced a prolongation of HX hypnosis. A combination of lithium treatment for 3 days with disulfiram synergistically potentiated the HX hypnosis and reduced the brain HX levels on awakening.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry: International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in development and cellular processes. The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling activation is the stabilization of β-catenin protein in cytoplasm and/or nucleus. The stability of β-catenin is the key to its biological functions and is controlled by the phosphorylation of its amino-terminal degradation domain. Aberrant activation of β-catenin signaling has been implicated in the development of human cancers. It has been recently suggested that GSK3βmay play an essential role in regulating global protein turnover.
Lithium salts have been widely used for several years in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis. Various side-effects of lithium salts have been described. The present case report present two patients in whom sinus node dysfunction leading to syncope was caused by lithium. One of the cases showed signs of depressed sinus node function even when not on lithium, but no symptoms arose until lithium treatment was commenced. The second case showed no signs of depressed sinus node function when lithium was withdrawn.