Litter Size

Publication Title: 
Aging

Calorie restriction results in leanness, which is linked to metabolic conditions that favor longevity. We show here that deficiency of the triglyceride synthesis enzyme acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which promotes leanness, also extends longevity without limiting food intake. Female DGAT1-deficient mice were protected from age-related increases in body fat, tissue triglycerides, and inflammation in white adipose tissue. This protection was accompanied by increased mean and maximal life spans of ~25% and ~10%, respectively.

Author(s): 
Streeper, Ryan S.
Grueter, Carrie A.
Salomonis, Nathan
Cases, Sylvaine
Levin, Malin C.
Koliwad, Suneil K.
Zhou, Ping
Hirschey, Mattew D.
Verdin, Eric
Farese, Robert V.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Experimental Biology

Life history theory suggests that investment in reproduction can trade off against growth, longevity and both reproduction and performance later in life. One possible reason for this trade-off is that reproduction directly causes somatic damage. Oxidative stress, an overproduction of reactive oxygen species in relation to cellular defences, can correlate with reproductive investment and has been implicated as a pathway leading to senescence.

Author(s): 
Garratt, Michael
Pichaud, Nicolas
King, Edith D. Aloise
Brooks, Robert C.
Publication Title: 
Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience

To better understand the mechanisms that allow some animals to sustain their productive effort in harsh environmental conditions, rabbit does from two selection lines (LP and V) were housed in normal (NC), nutritional (NF) or heat (HC) challenging environmental conditions from first to third partum. The LP line (n=85) was founded on reproductive longevity criteria by selecting does from commercial farms that had a minimum of 25 partum with more than 7.5 kits born alive per parity.

Author(s): 
Savietto, D.
Cervera, C.
Blas, E.
Baselga, M.
Larsen, T.
Friggens, N. C.
Pascual, J. J.
Publication Title: 
Reproduction (Cambridge, England)

Females of the inbred mouse RR strain have a limited ability to nurture their offspring, and frequently the young die during rearing. Quantitative trait locus analysis was carried out on the F2 progeny produced from a genetic cross between RR and KK, a strain of normal nurturing ability, to elucidate the putative genetic basis governing certain aspects of the inferior nurturing ability in the RR strain. One hundred and ninety-two F2 female mice were mated with C57BL/6J males.

Author(s): 
Suto, J.
Yamanaka, H.
Sekikawa, K.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Asparagus racemosus (AR) is a herb used as a rasayana in Ayurveda and is considered both general and female reproductive tonic. Methanolic extract of A. racemosus roots (ARM; 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days) showed teratological disorders in terms of increased resorption of fetuses, gross malformations e.g. swelling in legs and intrauterine growth retardation with a small placental size in Charles Foster rats. Pups born to mother exposed to ARM for full duration of gestation showed evidence of higher rate of resorption and therefore smaller litter size.

Author(s): 
Goel, R. K.
Prabha, T.
Kumar, M. Mohan
Dorababu, M.
Prakash, null
Singh, G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Vitamin E supplement and pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection have a reciprocal role in influencing the maternal immune response, a key determinant of the success or failure of pregnancy. However, it remains unknown whether vitamin E supplement provides protection against PRV-induced failure of pregnancy. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E level (0, 75, 375, 750 and 1,500 mg/kg) on the reproduction performance, immunity and expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of PRV-challenged mice.

Author(s): 
Wu, De
Luo, Xiao-lin
Lin, Yan
Fang, Zheng-feng
Luo, Xiao-rong
Xu, Hai-Tao
Zeng, Wenxian
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

The effects of 15, 30 or 50% caloric restriction during pregnancy on maternal and fetal compartments was determined in obese Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant and nonpregnant animals were assigned on a weight basis to one of the dietary treatments. All nutrients, except calories, were fed at levels to meet dietary requirements. Animals were killed on day 20 of treatment and fetuses were taken by Caesarian section. Pregnant animals achieved positive weight gain during 20 days of gestation at all levels of caloric restriction.

Author(s): 
Reynolds, L. K.
Ho, H. P.
Taper, L. J.
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