BACKGROUND: Persistent activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6) has been known to cause liver fibrosis. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid, two hydrolysable tannins of tropical almond (Terminalia chebula) fruits, on collagen synthesis and signal transduction in transforming growth factor-?1-stimulated HSC-T6 cells.
Toxicology in vitro: an international journal published in association with BIBRA
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are formed during normal aging, and at an accelerated rate in metabolic syndrome patients. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can be caused by the AGEs in plasma, while glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (glycer-AGEs) are significantly higher in the serum of NASH patients. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of chebulic acid, isolated from Terminalia chebula Retz., in the inhibition of glycer-AGEs induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and collagen accumulation using the LX-2 cell line.
Systematic screening of forty-seven haemophiliacs in Sheffield revealed abnormal liver-function tests in thirty-six (77%), with a tendency for these abnormalities to persist. To assess the importance of these abnormalities, percutaneous liver biopsy was carried out on eight symptom-free patients under factor-VIII cover. A wide spectrum of chronic liver disease was demonstrated, including chronic aggressive hepatitis and cirrhosis. The liver pathology bore no relation to clinical history or to biochemical findings.
This cross-sectional study examined the association between the severity of chronic hepatitis C and the type 1 personality, which has been shown by Grossarth-Maticek to be strongly related to the incidence of cancer and mortality.
Artemisinin is mainly eliminated by hepatic transformation. To investigate whether the clearance of artemisinin in patients with liver cirrhosis is different from healthy volunteers, a pharmacokinetic study was performed in male Vietnamese patients with Child B cirrhosis of the liver who received 500 mg of artemisinin orally. The results were compared to those found in a previous study in healthy subjects. The mean (+/- SD) area under the concentration time curve was 2365 (+/- 1761) h ng/ml; the mean (+/- SD) clearance, 382 (+/- 303)L/h.
Estimates were made of the arsenic concentration in liver specimens from nine patients having idiopathic portal hypertension (IP), and in four livers these were found to be significantly higher than those in patients with cirrhosis and in control subjects. The splenovenogram revealed extensive portosystemic collateral circulation. Corrected sinusoidal pressure and blood flow studies showed higher levels in four patients than in normal subjects. Microscopic examination of liver tissues revealed periportal fibrosis.
Consumption of the hepatotoxin arsenic is very common in certain geographical areas of India and occurs as a result of the intake of arsenic contaminated water, vegetables, adultered opium, ayurvedic and indigenous medicines, and "home made brew". Arsenic levels were estimated in livers obtained after autopsy from patients of idiopathic cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, Indian childhood cirrhosis, non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis, fulminant hepatitis and Wilson's disease.
Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is the main enzyme responsible for catabolism of excess hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe). GNMT is absent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), messenger RNA (mRNA) levels are significantly lower in livers of patients at risk of developing HCC, and GNMT has been proposed to be a tumor-susceptibility gene for liver cancer. The identification of several children with liver disease as having mutations of the GNMT gene further suggests that this enzyme plays an important role in liver function.
Cirrhosis is defined as the histological development of regenerative nodules surrounded by fibrous bands in response to chronic liver injury, which leads to portal hypertension and end-stage liver disease. Recent advances in the understanding of the natural history and pathophysiology of cirrhosis, and in treatment of its complications, have resulted in improved management, quality of life, and life expectancy of patients.