Four suites of behavioral traits have been associated with four broad neural systems: the 1) dopamine and related norepinephrine system; 2) serotonin; 3) testosterone; 4) and estrogen and oxytocin system. A 56-item questionnaire, the Fisher Temperament Inventory (FTI), was developed to define four temperament dimensions associated with these behavioral traits and neural systems. The questionnaire has been used to suggest romantic partner compatibility. The dimensions were named: Curious/Energetic; Cautious/Social Norm Compliant; Analytical/Tough-minded; and Prosocial/Empathetic.
OBJECTIVE: Most research on the effects of severe psychological stress has focused on stress-related psychopathology. Here, the author develops psychobiological models of resilience to extreme stress. METHOD: An integrative model of resilience and vulnerability that encompasses the neurochemical response patterns to acute stress and the neural mechanisms mediating reward, fear conditioning and extinction, and social behavior is proposed.
We previously found that the center of animal hypnosis production in the rabbit is located around the locus ceruleus and brachium conjunctivum (LC-BC) of the brainstem. The involvement of serotonergic neurons in this area of animal hypnosis was investigated by microinjection of serotonin into these regions. The duration of animal hypnosis (DAH) induced by inversion was diminished to about 65% of the controls by serotonin microinjection into the LC-BC and microinjection of methysergide prolonged the DAH to 3.2 times that of the controls.
The role of serotonergic pathways in the hypnotic response to dexmedetomidine was examined in neurochemical and behavioral studies. Following acute administration of dexmedetomidine, loss of righting reflex and changes in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and norepinephrine turnover in different brain regions (locus coeruleus and hippocampus) were assessed. In separate experiments, the effect of dexmedetomidine on 5-HT turnover was measured in rats rendered tolerant to the hypnotic effects of dexmedetomidine.
BACKGROUND: One underexploited property of anesthetics is their ability to probe neuronal regulation of arousal. At appropriate doses, anesthetics reversibly obtund conscious perception. However, individual anesthetic agents may accomplish this by altering the function of distinct neuronal populations. Previously the authors showed that isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit orexinergic neurons, delaying reintegration of sensory perception as denoted by emergence. Here the authors study the effects of halothane.