Long-Term Potentiation

Publication Title: 
Neuroscience

Synaptic plasticity, specifically long-term potentiation and long-term depression, is thought to be the underlying cellular mechanism for learning and memory processes in the brain. About two decades ago a new concept was introduced, namely metaplasticity, which comprises changes that modify the properties of synaptic plasticity due to a priming or preconditioning event.

Author(s): 
Schmidt, M. V.
Abraham, W. C.
Maroun, M.
Stork, O.
Richter-Levin, G.
Publication Title: 
Behavioral Neuroscience

Conditioning of fear reactions to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a footshock unconditioned stimulus (US) involves CS transmission to the amygdala from the auditory thalamus, the auditory cortex, or both. This article presents a simple neural network model of this neural system. The model consists of modules of mutually inhibitory nonlinear units representing the different relevant anatomical structures of the thalamo-amygdala and thalamo-corticoamygdala circuitry.

Author(s): 
Armony, J. L.
Servan-Schreiber, D.
Cohen, J. D.
LeDoux, J. E.
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience Letters

Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic. Propofol is known to impair maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) in synaptic responses from Schaffer collateral-commissural (SC) pathway to CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus, but the threshold concentration of propofol needed to elicit this action is unknown. The actions of propofol in vivo (e.g., amnesia, sedation, hypnosis and immobility) depend on its concentration, and thus it is necessary to determine the concentration required to impair CA1 LTP in order to assess the impact of impairment in vivo.

Author(s): 
Takamatsu, Isao
Sekiguchi, Masayuki
Wada, Keiji
Sato, Tetsuo
Ozaki, Makoto
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Intravenous anesthetics exert a component of their actions via potentiating inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by ?-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABAARs). Phasic and tonic inhibition is mediated by distinct populations of GABAARs, with the majority of phasic inhibition by subtypes composed of ?1-3??2 subunits, whereas tonic inhibition is dependent on subtypes assembled from ?4-6?? subunits.

Author(s): 
Kretschmannova, Karla
Hines, Rochelle M.
Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel
Terunuma, Miho
Tretter, Verena
Jurd, Rachel
Kelz, Max B.
Moss, Stephen J.
Davies, Paul A.
Publication Title: 
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a key component of synaptic vesicle-docking/fusion machinery, and plays a critical role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. We previously reported that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA1 region is involved in consolidation of contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory (Hou et al. European J Neuroscience, 20: 1593-1603, 2004). SNAP-25 is expressed not only in the CA1 region, but also in the CA3 region, and the SNAP-25 mRNA level in the CA3 region is higher than in the CA1 region.

Author(s): 
Hou, Qiu-Ling
Gao, Xiang
Lu, Qi
Zhang, Xue-Han
Tu, Yan-yang
Jin, Mei-Lei
Zhao, Guo-Ping
Yu, Lei
Jing, Nai-He
Li, Bao-Ming
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

While polyphenolic compounds have many health benefits, the potential development of polyphenols for the prevention/treatment of neurological disorders is largely hindered by their complexity as well as by limited knowledge regarding their bioavailability, metabolism, and bioactivity, especially in the brain. We recently demonstrated that dietary supplementation with a specific grape-derived polyphenolic preparation (GP) significantly improves cognitive function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Author(s): 
Wang, Jun
Ferruzzi, Mario G.
Ho, Lap
Blount, Jack
Janle, Elsa M.
Gong, Bing
Pan, Yong
Gowda, G. A. Nagana
Raftery, Daniel
Arrieta-Cruz, Isabel
Sharma, Vaishali
Cooper, Bruce
Lobo, Jessica
Simon, James E.
Zhang, Chungfen
Cheng, Alice
Qian, Xianjuan
Ono, Kenjiro
Teplow, David B.
Pavlides, Constantine
Dixon, Richard A.
Pasinetti, Giulio M.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is an important neurotrophic hormone. Deficiency of this hormone has been reported to influence the genesis of cognitive impairment and dementia in the elderly patients. Nevertheless, there are studies indicating that cognitive function can be maintained into old age even in the absence of circulating IGF-1 and studies that link IGF-1 to an acceleration of neurological diseases. Although IGF-1 has a complex role in brain function, synaptic effects appear to be central to the IGF-1-induced improvement in learning and memory.

Author(s): 
Deak, Ferenc
Sonntag, William E.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) are forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory that are expressed through increases and decreases, respectively, in dendritic spine size and AMPA receptor (AMPAR) phosphorylation and postsynaptic localization. The A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150) signaling scaffold regulates AMPAR phosphorylation, channel activity, and endosomal trafficking associated with LTP and LTD.

Author(s): 
Keith, Dove J.
Sanderson, Jennifer L.
Gibson, Emily S.
Woolfrey, Kevin M.
Robertson, Holly R.
Olszewski, Kyle
Kang, Rujun
El-Husseini, Alaa
Dell'acqua, Mark L.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Caloric restriction (CR) is a dietary regimen known to promote lifespan by slowing down the occurrence of age-dependent diseases. The greatest risk factor for neurodegeneration in the brain is age, from which follows that CR might also attenuate the progressive loss of neurons that is often associated with impaired cognitive capacities. In this study, we used a transgenic mouse model that allows for a temporally and spatially controlled onset of neurodegeneration to test the potentially beneficial effects of CR.

Author(s): 
Gräff, Johannes
Kahn, Martin
Samiei, Alireza
Gao, Jun
Ota, Kristie T.
Rei, Damien
Tsai, Li-Huei
Publication Title: 
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

OBJECTIVE: Recent experimental evidence demonstrating neuronal/synaptic plasticity and, in particular, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in spinal neurons is reviewed. The implications of these studies for possible mechanistic explanations of low back pain and its remediation by spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) are explored. Brief descriptions of LTP and LTD and elaboration of the key roles of calcium, glutamate, and glutamate receptors in LTP/LTD are provided as separate appendices.

Author(s): 
Boal, Robert W.
Gillette, Richard G.

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