Ageing in immune reactivity is described at the level of lymphoid cells, at that of lymphoid organs and organ function, and at that of regulation of cell and organ function. Apart from shifts in numbers of lymphoid cell subpopulations, the decrease in communication capacity between lymphoid cell populations and in binding of invaders (like bacteria) is an important aspect of ageing. These aspects may contribute to the decreased immune reactivity to invaders and the enhanced incidence of immune reactions to self-components (autoimmune reactivity).
Alloantibody can be a major barrier to successful organ transplantation; however, therapy to control antibody production or to alter its impact on the allograft remains limited. The goal of this review is to examine the regulatory steps that are involved in the generation of alloreactive B cells, with a specific emphasis on how known mechanisms relate to clinical situations in transplant recipients. Thus, we will examine the process of activation of mature, naÔve B cells and how this relates to de novo antibody production.
Toll-like receptors (TLR) play an important role in the recognition of microbes by host sentinel cells that leads to the subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the patterns of TLR2-, TLR3- and TLR9-expressing antigen presenting cells (APCs) in spleen and blood of gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs after colonization with a mixture of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri or infection with the virulent human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain.
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic pump techniques (LPT) are used clinically by osteopathic practitioners for the treatment of edema and infection; however, the mechanisms by which LPT enhances lymphatic circulation and provides protection during infection are not understood. Rhythmic compressions on the abdomen during LPT compress the abdominal area, including the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), which may facilitate the release of leukocytes from these tissues into the lymphatic circulation.
INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune inflammation is a characteristic feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune diseases. In the natural course of human autoimmune diseases, it is rather difficult to pinpoint the precise timing of the initial event that triggers the cascade of pathogenic events that later culminate into clinically overt disease. Therefore, it is a challenge to examine the early preclinical events in these disorders. Animal models are an invaluable resource in this regard.
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research: The Official Journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
Cytokines are immune mediators that play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease that targets the synovial joints. The cytokine environment in the peripheral lymphoid tissues and the target organ (the joint) has a strong influence on the outcome of the initial events that trigger autoimmune inflammation. In susceptible individuals, these events drive inflammation and tissue damage in the joints. However, in resistant individuals, the inflammatory events are controlled effectively with minimal or no overt signs of arthritis.
Glycyrrhizin, an abundant bioactive component of the medicinal licorice root is rapidly metabolized by gut commensal bacteria into 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA). Either or both of these compounds have been shown to have antiviral, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-ulcerative, anti-tumor, anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro or in vivo. In this study, the ability of GRA to modulate immune responses at the small intestinal mucosa when delivered orally was investigated.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The source and dynamics of persistent HIV-1 during long-term combinational antiretroviral therapy (cART) are critical to understanding the barriers to curing HIV-1 infection. To address this issue, we isolated and genetically characterized HIV-1 DNA from naïve and memory T cells from peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) from eight patients after 4-12 y of suppressive cART. Our detailed analysis of these eight patients indicates that persistent HIV-1 in peripheral blood and GALT is found primarily in memory CD4(+) T cells [CD45RO(+)/CD27((+/-))].
NK cells are a heterogenous population of innate lymphocytes with diverse functional attributes critical for early protection from viral infections. We have previously reported a decrease in influenza-induced NK cell cytotoxicity in 6-mo-old C57BL/6 calorically restricted (CR) mice. In the current study, we extend our findings on the influence of CR on NK cell phenotype and function in the absence of infection. We demonstrate that reduced mature NK cell subsets result in increased frequencies of CD127(+) NK cells in CR mice, skewing the function of the total NK cell pool.