Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology
The general pharmacological profile and effects of E-4716 on the CNS have been investigated in comparison with other histamine receptor blockers. In in vitro studies with isolated organs and in binding studies on numerous receptors, E-4716 had no activity even at high concentrations, except for the selective blockade of H1 receptors. No activity was observed in pharmacological trials in vivo, such as the Irwin test or analgesia induced by phenylbenzoquinone or electroshock, suggesting a depressant activity on the CNS.
Soy isoflavones are promising dietary agents for prevention of breast cancer. Isoflavones bind estrogen receptors (ER) and may variably act as either estrogen agonists or antagonists depending on the estrogen environment. In this study, we used a postmenopausal primate model to evaluate interactive effects of dietary soy isoflavones and estrogen on risk markers for breast cancer.
Soy isoflavonoids have well-established estrogenic properties in cell culture and rodent models, raising concerns that high isoflavonoid intake may promote development of uterine and breast cancers. To address this concern we evaluated the effects of high-dose isoflavonoid supplements on reproductive tissues in a postmenopausal primate model.
Macaques provide an important animal model for the study of hormonal agents and their effects on risk biomarkers for breast cancer. A common criticism of this model is that spontaneous breast cancer has rarely been described in these animals. In this report, we characterize 35 mammary gland lesions ranging from ductal hyperplasia to carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Based on a retrospective analysis, we estimated the lifetime incidence of mammary gland neoplasia in aged female macaques to be about 6%.
Endogenous estrogens are important determinants of breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. In this study we evaluated the effects of dietary soy isoflavonoids on endogenous estrogen metabolism in a postmenopausal primate model.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention: A Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Estrogen metabolism may play an important role in mammary carcinogenesis in postmenopausal women. We evaluated the effects of prior oral contraceptive (OC) treatment and current soy isoflavone consumption on endogenous estrogen metabolite concentration and biomarkers of tissue estrogen exposure in a monkey model.
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Estrogen exposure and metabolism may play an important role in the development of estrogen-sensitive cancers in postmenopausal women. In this study we investigated whether past oral contraceptive (OC) administration or current dietary isoflavonoids (IF) affected expression and/or activity of steroid hormone-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes using complementary primate and cell culture models.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-1B antagonizes insulin signaling and is a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. To date, studies of PTP-1B have been limited by the availability of specific antagonists; however, treatment of rodents with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) directed against PTP-1B improves insulin sensitivity, inhibits lipogenic gene expression, and reduces triglyceride accumulation in liver and adipose tissue. Here we investigated ASO-mediated PTP-1B inhibition in primates.
Research over the past 15 years has suggested a high comorbidity of depression and coronary heart disease (CHD). However the mechanisms responsible for this relationship are poorly understood. This study was designed to examine the relationships between depressive behaviors and concentrations of circulating lipids and lipid signaling molecules that may be common to both CHD and depression in a cohort of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) consuming a 'Western' diet, enriched with saturated fat and cholesterol.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy of women in the developed world. To better understand its pathogenesis, knowledge of normal breast development is crucial, as BC is the result of disregulation of physiologic processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of reproductive life stages on the transcriptional profile of the mammary gland in a primate model.