ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), a widely used plant in folk and Ayurvedic systems of medicine is well known for its immunomodulatory activity; however, the presence of an immunomodulatory protein (ImP) in guduchi has not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Guduchi ImP was purified from dry stem powder extract by anion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose. Characterization of guduchi ImP was performed by SDS-PAGE, periodic acid-Schiff staining, HPLC, and immunochemical analyses.
Because heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate limiting enzyme in the degradation of the pro-oxidant hemin/heme from blood, here we investigated the contribution of the inducible HO-1 to early brain injury produced by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). We found that after induction of ICH, HO-1 proteins were highly detectable in the peri-ICH region predominantly in microglia/macrophages and endothelial cells. Remarkably, the injury volume was significantly smaller in HO-1 knockout (HO-1-/-) mice than in wild-type controls 24 and 72 h after ICH.
We have identified potent monocyte/macrophage activating bacterial lipoproteins within commonly used immune enhancing botanicals such as Echinacea, American ginseng and alfalfa sprouts. These bacterial lipoproteins, along with lipopolysaccharides, were substantially more potent than other bacterially derived components when tested in in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation systems.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a dynamic, idiopathic, chronic inflammatory condition associated with a high colon cancer risk. American ginseng has antioxidant properties and targets many of the players in inflammation. The aim of this study was to test whether American ginseng extract prevents and treats colitis. Colitis in mice was induced by the presence of 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water or by 1% oxazolone rectally.
We previously reported that the majority of in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of Echinacea and other botanicals depends upon bacterial lipopolysaccharides and Braun-type bacterial lipoproteins. We determined the contribution made by these bacterial components to the overall immune-enhancing activity detected in E. purpurea and E. angustifolia bulk root and aerial material obtained from six major growers/suppliers in North America.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Echinacea is a popular herbal immunomodulator. Recent reports indicate that Echinacea products inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in activated macrophages. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study we determined the inhibitory effects of alcohol extracts and individual fractions of alcohol extracts of Echinacea on NO production, and explored the mechanism underlying the pharmacological anti-inflammatory activity.
Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue is a hallmark of obesity. We recently reported two phenotypically distinct subsets of adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) based on the surface expression of the glycoprotein F4/80 and responsiveness to treatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonist. Hence, we hypothesized that F4/80(hi) and F4/80(lo) ATM differentially express PPAR gamma. This study phenotypically and functionally characterizes F4/80(hi) and F4/80(lo) ATM subsets during obesity.
AIM OF THE STUDY: Ginseng has been used as general tonic for thousands of years in Asia and becomes a popular herbal medicine all over the world. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its benefit effects are less explored. Thus, we investigated the effect of a crude extract from Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) on suppression of pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages with a focus on signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) released from adipose tissue play a role in activation of macrophages and subsequent development of insulin resistance in a mouse model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: ELVs released from adipose tissue were purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation and labeled with green fluorescent dye and then intravenously injected into B6 ob/ob mice (obese model) or B6 mice fed a high-fat diet.
Epilobium angustifolium has been traditionally used to treat of a number of diseases; however, not much is known regarding its effect on innate immune cells. In this study, we report that extracts of E. angustifolium activated functional responses in neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages. Activity-guided fractionation, followed by mass spectroscopy and NMR analysis, resulted in the identification of oenothein B as the primary component responsible for phagocyte activation.