INTRODUCTION: Premenstrual symptoms occur in 95% of women of reproductive age. Severe, debilitating symptoms (PMS) occur in about 5% of those women. There is no consensus on how symptom severity should be assessed, which has led to a wide variety of symptoms scales, making it difficult to synthesise data on treatment efficacy. The cyclical nature of the condition also makes it difficult to conduct RCTs.
Vascular calcification (VC), commonly encountered in renal failure, diabetes, and aging, is associated with a large increase in the risk for cardiovascular events and mortality. Calcification of the arterial media and of heart valves clearly plays a mediating role in this regard, whereas it is less clear how calcification of plaque influences atherogenesis and risk for plaque rupture. Vascular calcification is an active process in which vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) adopt an osteoblastic phenotype and deposit hydroxyapatite crystals; apoptosis of VSMCs also promotes this deposition.
The emphasis on harmful substances that may occur in potable waters has almost obscured the fact that important beneficial constituents are commonly present. The chemical substances in water that make positive contributions to human health act mainly in two ways: (i) nutritionally, by supplying essential macro and micro elements that the diet (excluding water) may not provide in adequate amounts (for example, Mg, I and Zn); and (ii) by providing macro and micro elements that inhibit the absorbtion and/or effects of toxic elements such as Hg, Pb and Cd.
Taurine (T) was first noted as beneficial for stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) prevention in genetic rat models, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). The preventive mechanisms of T were ascribed to sympathetic modulation for reducing blood pressure (BP) and anti-inflammatory action. Recent epidemiological surveys revealed the involvement of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of stroke and also atherosclerosis for which T was proven to be effective experimentally.
Previous molecular genetic studies have shown that during programmed chromosomal healing, telomerase adds telomeric repeats directly to non-telomeric sequences in Tetrahymena, forming de novo telomeres. However, the biochemical mechanism underlying this process is not well understood. Here, we show for the first time that telomerase activity is capable in vitro of efficiently elongating completely non-telomeric DNA oligonucleotide primers, consisting of natural telomere-adjacent or random sequences, at low primer concentrations.
The action of copper (CuSO4, 5 mg/kg, oral) on selected neuropharmacological actions of cannabis resin (CI, oral) was studied on albino rats and mice. Copper potentiated the barbiturate hypnosis-potentiating activity of CI in albino rats and mice and had no effect on hypothermic activity in albino rats. Single doses of copper partially inhibited tolerance to barbiturate hypnosis-potentiation activity and markedly delayed the development of tolerance to hypothermic activity of CI. Oral as well as i.c.v.
In alcohol-dependent in-patients, an adequate drug prophylaxis should be made in order to lower the degree of a developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) or to prevent a life-threatening delirium tremens. Pre-condition of successful therapy is a precise diagnosis. In patients, the beginning of whose abstinence is known, carefully-targeted pharmacological interventions can prevent severe imbalances of neurotransmitters. Typical time courses of destabilisation of neural balances should be considered.
Pharmacological Research: The Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Praval bhasma (PB; Coral calx) is a natural source of rich calcium widely used in traditional system of Indian medicine as a supplement in the treatment of variety of bone metabolic disorders associated with calcium deficiency. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Praval bhasma on the progress of bone loss induced by ovariectomy and concurrent calcium deficiency (CD-OVX).
Drugs used in the management of pregnancy-induced hypertension have been reviewed, and their value and adverse effects on both mother and fetus have been considered. Although magnesium and hydralazine remain the stalwarts of therapy, a number of other drugs have potential that may be realized in the future. Several new medications have promise in correcting the derangements of toxemia, but safety for the fetus has yet to be demonstrated.
The present study investigates the unique contribution of the NH2-terminal 33 residues of prothrombin, the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain, to the Ca(II) and phospholipid-binding properties of prothrombin. Two Gla domain peptides, 1-42 and 1-45, produced by chymotryptic cleavage of prothrombin fragment 1 (residues 1-156 of the amino terminus of bovine prothrombin) and isolated by anion-exchange chromatography were utilized to characterize the Gla domain of prothrombin. This investigation utilized several experimental approaches to examine the properties of the Gla domain peptides.