Malaria

Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a leading health threat for low to middle-income countries and around 1.8 billion people in the Southeast Asian region and 870 million people in the Western Pacific region remain at risk of contracting malaria. Traditional medicine/traditional healer (TM/TH) use is prominent amongst populations in low- to middle-income countries and constitutes an important issue influencing and potentially challenging effective, safe and coordinated prevention and treatment strategies around malaria.

Author(s): 
Suswardany, Dwi L.
Sibbritt, David W.
Supardi, Sudibyo
Chang, Sungwon
Adams, Jon
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease causes chronic haemolytic anaemia, dactylitis, and painful acute crises, and increases the risk of stroke, organ damage, bacterial infections, and complications of blood transfusion. In sub-Saharan Africa, up to a third of adults are carriers of the defective sickle cell gene, and 1-2% of babies are born with the disease.

Author(s): 
Meremikwu, Martin M.
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease causes chronic haemolytic anaemia, dactylitis, and painful acute crises, and increases the risk of stroke, organ damage, bacterial infections, and complications of blood transfusion. In sub-Saharan Africa, up to a third of adults are carriers of the defective sickle cell gene, and 1-2% of babies are born with the disease.

Author(s): 
Meremikwu, Martin M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet Thangphaet

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and the cytotoxicity of Phyllanthus emblica Linn, Terminalia chebula Retz, and Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn) Roxb extracts. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Standard phytochemical screening tests were used to detect metabolites in the plant extract. The water extracts of medicinal plants were tested for their antiplasmodial activity in vitro by assessing their ability to inhibit the uptake of [3H] hypoxanthine into the Plasmodium falciparum K1 multidrug-resistant strain.

Author(s): 
Pinmai, Khosit
Hiriote, Wanwarang
Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas
Jongsakul, Krisada
Sireeratawong, Seewaboon
Tor-Udom, Siripen
Publication Title: 
Nature

We define neurodevelopment as the dynamic inter-relationship between genetic, brain, cognitive, emotional and behavioural processes across the developmental lifespan. Significant and persistent disruption to this dynamic process through environmental and genetic risk can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders and disability. Research designed to ameliorate neurodevelopmental disorders in low- and middle-income countries, as well as globally, will benefit enormously from the ongoing advances in understanding their genetic and epigenetic causes, as modified by environment and culture.

Author(s): 
Boivin, Michael J.
Kakooza, Angelina M.
Warf, Benjamin C.
Davidson, Leslie L.
Grigorenko, Elena L.
Publication Title: 
Le Infezioni in Medicina: Rivista Periodica Di Eziologia, Epidemiologia, Diagnostica, Clinica E Terapia Delle Patologie Infettive

The loss of low-lying farm-land to marshes and swamps was a striking phenomenon in Italy and other regions of Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire. Throughout the Middle Ages extensive fertile agricultural lands were abandoned due to increased marshiness and the risk of the spread of malaria diffusion. In economic and social terms, this was a further source of decline.

Author(s): 
Sabbatani, S.
Publication Title: 
East African Medical Journal

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors influencing the use of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) in the prevention of Malaria to children under five years. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kiambu District, Central Province of Kenya. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty nine (50.7%) attained primary education. Two hundred and seventy two (99.3%) were of Christian faith. One hundred and sixty four (59.8%) didn't have formal employment. Two hundred and fourty three (88.7%) were married. One hundred forty two (51.8%) were house wives. Two hundred and fourty seven (65.0%) used ITNs.

Author(s): 
Mudenyo, M. O.
Nobuyuki, H.
Publication Title: 
Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia I Parazitarnye Bolezni

Malaria is one of the main health problems facing most developing countries having a hot climate. It is a problem in Turkmenistan. The country is situated in Central Asia, north of the Kopetdag mountains, between the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu-Darya river to the east. Turkmenistan stretches for a distance of 1,100 km from west to east and 650 km from north to south. It borders Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the east and north-east, Iran in the south, and Afghanistan in the south-east.

Author(s): 
Amangel'diev, K. A.
Publication Title: 
Social Science & Medicine (1982)

The paper seeks to examine the economic impact of malaria in the Sudan. Using longitudinal empirical data from a farming population in the Gezira, it examines and quantifies labour losses through malaria within families, observing simultaneously the manner in which altruism or "nafeer" helps families and communities insure their members against disease and other consequences of uncertainty.

Author(s): 
Nur, E. T.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Eleven Thai isolates and one West African isolate of Plasmodium falciparum were tested for their susceptibility to the Chinese antimalarial drugs artemisinine (qinghaosu) and artemether. The isolates were cultivated by the Trager-Jensen candle-jar technique and exposed to the action of the drugs for 36-48 hours. Artemisinine inhibited growth of most isolates at 10(-7)-10(-8) mol/litre and artemether at 10(-8) mol/litre (with an initial parasitaemia of 0.5-1.0%).

Author(s): 
Thaithong, S.
Beale, G. H.

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