Malaria Vaccines

Publication Title: 
Trends in Parasitology

The outcome of the Phase IIb trial of RTS,S (a vaccine comprising the polypeptides RTS and S) in young Mozambican children consolidated hopes that effective vaccination against malaria is a step nearer, and even elicited a generous promise of commitment from the Chancellor of the Exchequer of the UK. However, it seems that both optimism and generosity should be moderated by the failure of this vaccine to induce meaningful protection against infection by Plasmodium falciparum and that we should await confirmation of its efficacy in diminishing the incidence of severe malaria.

Author(s): 
Snounou, Georges
Gr¸ner, Anne Charlotte
M¸ller-Graf, Christine D. M.
Mazier, Dominique
Renia, Laurent
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

There are still approximately 500 million cases of malaria and 1 million deaths from malaria each year. Yet recently, malaria incidence has been dramatically reduced in some parts of Africa by increasing deployment of anti-mosquito measures and new artemisinin-containing treatments, prompting renewed calls for global eradication. However, treatment and mosquito control currently depend on too few compounds and thus are vulnerable to the emergence of compound-resistant parasites and mosquitoes.

Author(s): 
Greenwood, Brian M.
Fidock, David A.
Kyle, Dennis E.
Kappe, Stefan H. I.
Alonso, Pedro L.
Collins, Frank H.
Duffy, Patrick E.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

A 20 year-old healthy female volunteer participated in a clinical Phase I and IIa safety and efficacy trial with candidate malaria vaccine PfLSA-3-rec adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. Eleven weeks after the third and last immunization she was experimentally infected by bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes. When the thick blood smear became positive, at day 11, she was treated with artemether/lumefantrine according to protocol. On day 16 post-infection i.e. two days after completion of treatment, she woke up with retrosternal chest pain.

Author(s): 
Nieman, An-Emmie
de Mast, Quirijn
Roestenberg, Meta
Wiersma, Jorien
Pop, Gheorghe
Stalenhoef, Anton
Druilhe, Pierre
Sauerwein, Robert
van der Ven, André
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

From April 2005 to April 2006, a phase 2 malaria vaccine trial in Kenya enrolled 400 children aged 12-47 months. Each received mixed supervised and unsupervised artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated malaria, using a standard six-dose regimen, by weight. Children were followed for detection of parasitemia and clinical malaria. A median of two negative malaria blood films occurred during every recurrent parasitemia (RP) episode, suggesting reinfection over late recrudescence. Median time to RP after starting artemether-lumefantrine was 37 days (36-38).

Author(s): 
Woodring, Joseph V.
Ogutu, Bernhards
Schnabel, David
Waitumbi, John N.
Olsen, Cara H.
Walsh, Douglas S.
Heppner, D. Gray
Polhemus, Mark E.
Publication Title: 
PLoS medicine

Antimalarial drugs will be essential tools at all stages of malaria elimination along the path towards eradication, including the early control or "attack" phase to drive down transmission and the later stages of maintaining interruption of transmission, preventing reintroduction of malaria, and eliminating the last residual foci of infection.

Author(s): 
malERA Consultative Group on Drugs
Publication Title: 
MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report

In 2009, malaria, a disease transmitted by the bite of an infective Anopheles mosquito, caused an estimated 225 million clinical cases and 781,000 deaths worldwide, of which more than 90% occurred in children aged <5 years in Africa. Approximately half of the world's population, or 3 billion persons, are at risk for acquiring the illness. Malaria is transmitted most intensely in central and western Africa, where in some areas >40% of children aged <10 years are infected and residents can be bitten by more than one infective mosquito every day of the year.

Author(s): 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Publication Title: 
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: With the current snags from the use of Artemisinin - combination therapies (ACTs) in malaria treatment in addition to fear of cross- resistance to unrelated drugs, raising the immunocompetence of individuals in malaria endemic areas by vaccination is the best approach to malaria - free world. METHODS: Water - soluble cationic derivative, N, N, N- trimethylchitosan (TMC) was synthesized from chitosan.

Author(s): 
Nnamani, P. O.
Scoles, G.
Kröl, S.
Publication Title: 
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine

Malaria is an intra-cellular parasitic protozoon responsible for millions of deaths annually. Host and parasite genetic factors are crucial in affecting susceptibility to malaria and progression of the disease. Recent increased deployment of vector controls and new artemisinin combination therapies have dramatically reduced the mortality and morbidity of malaria worldwide. However, the gradual emergence of parasite and mosquito resistance has raised alarm regarding the effectiveness of current artemisinin-based therapies.

Author(s): 
Chong, Wing-Chui
Basir, Rusliza
Fei, Yam Mun
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization met in Geneva, Switzerland from 13 to 15 March, 2013.

Author(s): 
WHO Malaria Policy Advisory Committee and Secretariat
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Sterile protection against malaria infection can be achieved through vaccination of mice and humans with whole Plasmodium spp. parasites. One such method, known as infection-treatment-vaccination (ITV), involves immunization with wild type sporozoites (spz) under drug coverage.

Author(s): 
Peng, Xiaohong
Keitany, Gladys J.
Vignali, Marissa
Chen, Lin
Gibson, Claire
Choi, Kimberly
Huang, Fusheng
Wang, Ruobing

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