Malaria, Vivax

Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

To investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of artesunate (ARTS) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in Plasmodium vivax infections, 12 male Vietnamese adults with slide-positive vivax malaria received either intravenous ARTS (120 mg; group 1) or oral ARTS (100 mg; group 2) with the alternative preparation given 8 hr later in a randomized, open, cross-over study.

Author(s): 
Batty, K. T.
Le, A. T.
Ilett, K. F.
Nguyen, P. T.
Powell, S. M.
Nguyen, C. H.
Truong, X. M.
Vuong, V. C.
Huynh, V. T.
Tran, Q. B.
Nguyen, V. M.
Davis, T. M.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

To define the current efficacy of Fansidar (F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel Switzerland) (pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine), primaquine in a high dose, and artesunate for treating acute Plasmodium vivax malaria, we conducted a comparative clinical trial of these 3 drugs in an open-label study. Patients (15-65 years old) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments regimens in a serial order. Ninety percent of the patients were infected at Thailand-Myanmar border.

Author(s): 
Wilairatana, P.
Silachamroon, U.
Krudsood, S.
Singhasivanon, P.
Treeprasertsuk, S.
Bussaratid, V.
Phumratanaprapin, W.
Srivilirit, S.
Looareesuwan, S.
Publication Title: 
Revista Da Sociedade Brasileira De Medicina Tropical

We evaluated the clinical and therapeutic response to artesunate retocaps in 32 children admitted to the Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas (Amazon Foundation of Tropical Medicine) with clinical characteristics of moderate and severe malaria. Of these, 29 were infected with P. falciparum and 3 with P. vivax. They improved clinically 24 hours after the beginning of therapy, with 33. 3% of patients without fever, and after 48 hours, 77.2% of the children had no fever. The monitoring of asexual forms of the parasites showed that on D2 (day 2 of treatment) 58.6% of children with P.

Author(s): 
Alecrim, M. G.
Carvalho, L. M.
Fernandes, M. C.
de Andrade, S. D.
Loureiro, A. C.
Arcanjo, A. R.
Alecrim, W. D.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

AIMS: To describe the population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine in healthy volunteers after receiving tafenoquine for malaria prophylaxis. METHODS: The population consisted of 135 male Thai soldiers (mean age 28.9 years; weight 60.3 kg). All soldiers were presumptively treated with artesunate for 3 days plus doxycycline for 7 days to remove any pre-existing malaria infections. After the treatment regime, 104 soldiers (drug group) received a loading dose of 400 mg tafenoquine base daily for 3 days followed by 400 mg tafenoquine monthly for 5 consecutive months.

Author(s): 
Edstein, M. D.
Kocisko, D. A.
Brewer, T. G.
Walsh, D. S.
Eamsila, C.
Charles, B. G.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax has not yet occurred in Vietnam. The efficacy of artemisinin for P. vivax was not established. We conducted a double-blind randomized study involving 240 inpatients with P. vivax malaria who received artemisinin (40 mg/kg over 3 days) plus placebo chloroquine (Art) or chloroquine (25 mg/kg over 3 days) plus placebo artemisinin (Chl). Patients were followed up with weekly blood smears for 28 days. In each group 113 cases were analysed. All patients recovered rapidly.

Author(s): 
Phan, Giao T.
de Vries, Peter J.
Tran, Binh Q.
Le, Hung Q.
Nguyen, Nam V.
Nguyen, Thang V.
Heisterkamp, Siem H.
Kager, Piet A.
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Artemisinin-derivative combination therapies (ACT) are highly efficacious against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Few efficacy data, however, are available for vivax malaria. With high rates of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in both vivax and falciparum malaria in Papua Province, Indonesia, new combination therapies are required for both species. We recently found artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (ART-SP) to be highly effective (96%) in the treatment of falciparum malaria in Papua Province.

Author(s): 
Tjitra, Emiliana
Baker, Joanne
Suprianto, Sri
Cheng, Qin
Anstey, Nicholas M.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Previously, we described a direct inhibitory effect of sodium artesunate on sodium chloride transport in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, indicating that artesunate acts as a diuretic agent. Here we present 2 cases of falciparum malaria treated with 4 intravenous 60-mg doses of sodium artesunate. Neither diuretics nor vasoactive drugs were administered. A rise in diuresis (6 L/24 hours) was accompanied by an increase in natriuresis, and both declined at the end of the treatment.

Author(s): 
Seguro, Antonio Carlos
Campos, Silvia Bernardete
Publication Title: 
Revista Da Sociedade Brasileira De Medicina Tropical

with the objective of evaluating shortened therapeutic outlines effective in vivax malaria treatment, we accomplished an open, prospective study allocating 234 patients with vivax malaria distributed at random into eight therapeutic groups. Six groups used oral arthemisin as blood esquizonticide at different doses for one day and the other two groups received chloroquine in a single dose. The primaquine was used as a hypnozoiticide in all groups. They received a daily dose of 30mg in the course of five or seven days in all groups.

Author(s): 
da Silva, Rita do Socorro Uchôa
Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves
Calvosa, Vanja Suely Pachiano
de Souza, José Maria
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

We studied prospectively 801 Thai patients admitted to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases with acute, symptomatic Plasmodium vivax malaria to determine the optimum duration of treatment with oral artesunate and the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of a high dose of primaquine in prevention of relapse.

Author(s): 
Silachamroon, Udomsak
Krudsood, Srivicha
Treeprasertsuk, Sombat
Wilairatana, Polrat
Chalearmrult, Kobsiri
Mint, Hla Yin
Maneekan, Pannamas
White, Nicholas J.
Gourdeuk, Victor R.
Brittenham, Gary M.
Looareesuwan, Sornchai
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

AIMS: To assess the haemodynamic, electrocardiographic and glycaemic effects of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin (Artekin) fixed combination therapy in uncomplicated malaria. METHODS: Sixty-two Cambodians (32 children and 30 adults) with falciparum or vivax malaria were given Artekin given as four age-based oral doses over 32 h. Supine and erect blood pressure, the electrocardiographic QT interval and plasma glucose were measured before treatment and then at regular intervals during a 4-day admission period as part of efficacy and safety monitoring.

Author(s): 
Karunajeewa, Harin
Lim, Chiv
Hung, Te-Yu
Ilett, Kenneth F.
Denis, Mey Bouth
Socheat, Doung
Davis, Timothy M. E.

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