Malaria, Vivax

Publication Title: 
PloS One

INTRODUCTION: Emerging antimalarial drug resistance in mobile populations remains a significant public health concern. We compared two regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in military and civilians on the Thai-Cambodian border to evaluate national treatment policy. METHODS: Efficacy and safety of two and three-day regimens of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine were compared as a nested open-label evaluation within a malaria cohort study in 222 otherwise healthy volunteers (18% malaria-infected at baseline).

Author(s): 
Lon, Chanthap
Manning, Jessica E.
Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn
So, Mary
Sea, Darapiseth
Se, Youry
Gosi, Panita
Lanteri, Charlotte
Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna
Sriwichai, Sabaithip
Chann, Soklyda
Kuntawunginn, Worachet
Buathong, Nillawan
Nou, Samon
Walsh, Douglas S.
Tyner, Stuart D.
Juliano, Jonathan J.
Lin, Jessica
Spring, Michele
Bethell, Delia
Kaewkungwal, Jaranit
Tang, Douglas
Chuor, Char Meng
Satharath, Prom
Saunders, David
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The accuracy of the World Health Organization method of estimating malaria parasite density from thick blood smears by assuming a white blood cell (WBC) count of 8,000/?L has been questioned in several studies. Since epidemiological investigations, anti-malarial efficacy trials and routine laboratory reporting in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have all relied on this approach, its validity was assessed as part of a trial of artemisinin-based combination therapy, which included blood smear microscopy and automated measurement of leucocyte densities on Days 0, 3 and 7.

Author(s): 
Laman, Moses
Moore, Brioni R.
Benjamin, John
Padapu, Nixon
Tarongka, Nandao
Siba, Peter
Betuela, Inoni
Mueller, Ivo
Robinson, Leanne J.
Davis, Timothy M. E.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Poor-quality life-saving medicines are a major public health threat, particularly in settings with a weak regulatory environment. Insufficient amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) endanger patient safety and may contribute to the development of drug resistance. In the case of malaria, concerns relate to implications for the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT). In Papua New Guinea (PNG), Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax are both endemic and health facilities are the main source of treatment.

Author(s): 
Hetzel, Manuel W.
Page-Sharp, Madhu
Bala, Nancy
Pulford, Justin
Betuela, Inoni
Davis, Timothy M. E.
Lavu, Evelyn K.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

The association between severe malaria and Plasmodium vivax species is contentious. On the Thai-Myanmar border, all pregnant women are followed systematically with active weekly malaria screening. Over a 27-year period of providing antenatal care, 48,983 have been prospectively followed until pregnancy outcome (miscarriage or delivery) and 4,298 women have had P. vivax detected at least once. Reported here is the first known P. vivax-associated death amongst these women. The initial patient presentation was of uncomplicated P.

Author(s): 
McGready, Rose
Wongsaen, Klanarong
Chu, Cindy S.
Tun, Nay Win
Chotivanich, Kesinee
White, Nicholas J.
Nosten, François
Publication Title: 
BMJ (Clinical research ed.)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of rapid diagnostic tests on the diagnostic accuracy and treatment of malaria and non-severe fever in an Asian setting. DESIGN: Patient randomised trial in primary level clinics. SETTING: Two areas of Afghanistan where Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are endemic; one area with moderate transmission (eastern region) and one with low transmission (northern region). PARTICIPANTS: 5794 patients of all ages with suspected malaria enrolled by 80 clinicians in 22 clinics.

Author(s): 
Leslie, Toby
Mikhail, Amy
Mayan, Ismail
Cundill, Bonnie
Anwar, Mohammed
Bakhtash, Sayed Habib
Mohammed, Nader
Rahman, Habib
Zekria, Rohullah
Whitty, Christopher J. M.
Rowland, Mark
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Although malaria in Brazil almost exclusively occurs within the boundaries of the Amazon Region, some concerns are raised regarding imported malaria to non-endemic areas of the country, notably increased incidence of complications due to delayed diagnoses. However, although imported malaria in Brazil represents a major health problem, only a few studies have addressed this subject.

Author(s): 
Dos-Santos, João C. K.
Angerami, Rodrigo N.
Castiñeiras, Catarina M. S.
Lopes, Stefanie C. P.
Albrecht, Letusa
Garcia, Márcia T.
Levy, Carlos E.
Moretti, Maria L.
Lacerda, Marcus V. G.
Costa, Fabio T. M.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. Effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment would be valuable for guiding case follow-up in areas of known resistance risk and for detecting areas of emerging resistance. METHODS: Systems incorporating existing networks of village malaria workers (VMWs) to monitor day three-positive P. falciparum cases were piloted in three provinces in western Cambodia.

Author(s): 
Cox, Jonathan
Dy Soley, Lek
Bunkea, Tol
Sovannaroth, Siv
Soy Ty, Kheang
Ngak, Song
Bjorge, Steven
Ringwald, Pascal
Mellor, Steven
Sintasath, David
Meek, Sylvia
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The in vitro susceptibilities of 30 isolates of Plasmodium vivax to a number of antimalarials (chloroquine [CQ], mefloquine, amodiaquine, quinine, and artesunate [AS]) were evaluated. The isolates came from the region of Urabá in Colombia, in which malaria is endemic, and were evaluated by the schizont maturation test.

Author(s): 
Fernández, Diana
Segura, César
Arboleda, Margarita
Garavito, Giovanny
Blair, Silvia
Pabón, Adriana
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has recently been identified on the Thailand-Cambodia border and more recently in parts of Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. There is concern that if this resistance were to spread, it would severely hamper malaria control and elimination efforts worldwide. Efforts are currently underway to intensify malaria control activities and ultimately eliminate malaria from Cambodia. To support these efforts, it is crucial to have a detailed picture of disease burden and its major determinants over time.

Author(s): 
Maude, Richard J.
Nguon, Chea
Ly, Po
Bunkea, Tol
Ngor, Pengby
Canavati de la Torre, Sara E.
White, Nicholas J.
Dondorp, Arjen M.
Day, Nicholas P. J.
White, Lisa J.
Chuor, Char Meng
Publication Title: 
Western Pacific surveillance and response journal: WPSAR

SETTING: Atoifi Adventist Hospital (AAH), Solomon Islands, the only hospital in the East Kwaio region. OBJECTIVE: To use routine surveillance data to assess the trends in malaria from 2008 to 2013. DESIGN: Descriptive study of records from (1) AAH laboratory malaria records; (2) admissions to AAH for malaria; and (3) malaria treatments from outpatient records. RESULTS: AAH examined 35 608 blood films and diagnosed malaria in 4443 samples comprised of 2667 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and 1776 Plasmodium vivax (Pv).

Author(s): 
Oloifana-Polosovai, Hellen
Gwala, John
Harrington, Humpress
Massey, Peter D.
Ribeyro, Elmer
Flores, Angelica
Speare, Christopher
McBride, Edwin
MacLaren, David
Speare, Rick

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