Inadequate levels of essential nutrients is a most important factor in environmental health, leading to an almost monotonic increase in the incidence, morbidity, mortality, and associated costs of 'diseases of affluence' that has persisted for circa a century.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
Overeating and obesity are major health problems even in the elderly since they lead to the metabolic syndrome, resulting in an increase in cardiovascular disease. The development of novel nutritional therapeutics for the purpose of promoting health and controlling ageing process aims at the self-helping elderly. Caloric restriction (CR) has been widely investigated as a powerful method that can prevent and reverse senescent changes. CR might counteract the deleterious aspects of metabolic syndrome and may prolong lifespan even in humans.
The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein, as promulgated by the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States National Academy of Science, is 0.8 g protein/kg body weight/day for adults, regardless of age. This value represents the minimum amount of protein required to avoid progressive loss of lean body mass in most individuals. There is an evidence that the RDA for elderly may be greater than 0.8 g/kg/day. Evidence indicates that protein intake greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in elderly.
OBJECTIVE: Authors reported the results of a study on the application of immunonutrion in peri-operative (pre and postoperative) in head and neck cancer for all patients malnourished or not. In preoperative we used an oral treatmentand in postoperative an enteral one. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study concerning 78 patients (47 malnourished versus 31 not) having had heavy head and neck curative cancerology surgery. The mean follow up was of 10 months (from 7 to 16 month).
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex multisystem disorder affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Intestinal malabsorption occurs in approximately 90% of patients. In the past, malnutrition was an inevitable consequence of disease progression, leading to poor growth, impaired respiratory muscle function, decreased exercise tolerance and immunological impairment. A positive association between body weight and height and survival has been widely reported. The energy requirements of patients with CF vary widely and generally increase with age and disease severity.
Dietary restriction (DR: food restriction without malnutrition) is often considered as a nearly universal means to extend longevity in animal species and we could make the hypothesis that DR could increase longevity in humans. Some authors support the opinion that DR has already increased longevity in Okinawa inhabitants, and thus that DR can increase longevity in humans.
Vertebrates exposed to stressful conditions release glucocorticoids to sustain energy expenditure. In most species elevated glucocorticoids inhibit reproduction. However individuals with limited remaining reproductive opportunities cannot afford to forgo reproduction and should resist glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of reproductive behavior. The electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio has a single breeding season in its lifetime, thus we expect males to resist glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of their sexual advertisement signals. We studied stress resistance in male B.
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and its derived peptides, in particular alpha-MSH, have been shown to play a crucial role in the regulation of hunger, satiety and energy homeostasis. Studies in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) suggest an abnormal expression of appetite-regulating hormones. Hormone expression levels may be modulated by epigenetic mechanisms, which were recently shown to be implicated in the pathophysiology of eating disorders.
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie
OBJECTIVE: Our pilot study evaluates the impact of environmental factors, such as nutrition and smoking status, on epigenetic patterns in a disease-associated gene. METHOD: We measured the effects of malnutrition and cigarette smoking on proopiomelanocortin (POMC) promoter-specific DNA methylation in female patients with and without anorexia nervosa (AN). POMC and its derived peptides (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone) are implicated in stress and feeding response.
Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects.