BACKGROUND: The relationship between trait mindfulness and substance use behaviors has been inconsistent across studies. The current meta-analysis aimed at quantifying the magnitude of this relationship, and at determining how this relationship varies in context of (1) mindfulness facets, (2) substance type, (3) sample characteristics, and (4) substance use severity. METHODS: Using electronic databases, the literature search yielded 303 articles, but only 39 articles met inclusion criteria to be included in this meta-analysis.
Chronic pain occurs in as many as 85% of individuals with HIV and is associated with substantial functional impairment. Little guidance is available for HIV providers seeking to address their patients' chronic pain. We conducted a systematic review to identify clinical trials and observational studies that examined the impact of pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic interventions on pain and/or functional outcomes among HIV-infected individuals with chronic pain in high-development countries. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria and were mostly low or very low quality.
There is compelling evidence from family, twin and adoption studies of a substantial genetic contribution to schizophrenia. The mode of transmission is complicated and very rarely if ever involves a single gene. Rather schizophrenia results from multiple genes of small effect and their interplay with the environment. Perhaps because the overall size of the genetic effect is large, accounting for about 80 % of variance, definite environmental factors have been difficult to pin down.
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use by teenagers often predates the use of harder drugs, but the neurobiological underpinnings of such vulnerability are unknown. Animal studies suggest enhanced heroin self-administration (SA) and dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcsh) of adults following adolescent ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure. However, a causal link between proenkephalin (Penk) expression and vulnerability to heroin has yet to be established.
Substance use often starts in adolescence and poses a major problem for society and individual health. The dopamine system plays a role in substance use, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an important enzyme that degrades dopamine. The Val(108/158) Met polymorphism modulates COMT activity and thus dopamine levels, and has been linked to substance use. COMT gene methylation, on the other hand, may affect expression and thus indirectly COMT activity. We investigated whether methylation of the COMT gene was associated with adolescents' substance use.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Marijuana abuse is very prominent among pregnant women. Although marijuana cannabinoids have been shown to exert immunosuppression in adults, virtually nothing is known about the effects of marijuana use during pregnancy on the developing immune system of the fetus and during postnatal life. We noted that murine fetal thymus expressed high levels of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2.
This pilot study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) plus mindfulness meditation (MM) to reduce marijuana use among young adult females. Thirty-four female marijuana users between the ages of 18 and 29 were randomized to either the intervention group (n = 22), consisting of two sessions of MI-MM, or an assessment-only control group (n = 12). The participants' marijuana use was assessed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months posttreatment. Fixed-effects regression modeling was used to analyze treatment effects.
Observation of the real world of social marijuana use, where autotitration is the norm, renders the scare tactics of the new marijuana proponents not only inaccurate but irrelevant. There is much published evidence about the availability of highly potent varieties of cannabis from the nineteenth century through the present day. The effects attributed to the new marijuana are the same ones debated for centuries in many different cultures.