Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
The pharmaceutical industry's wide range of interactions with physicians, trainees, and other medical professionals--interactions that include information transfer and financial incentives--has been the source of undue influences, especially on physicians' prescription behavior. Current literature has mainly been focused on the financial element of these influences, and the problems in medical professional-pharmaceutical industry interactions are mainly viewed in terms of conflicts of interest.
Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: The Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
I've been on the road a bit this summer. Because of the kind generosity of my London broker, Lloyd and Partners, Ltd., I've been allowed the unique opportunity to have an insider's view of the London market. I observed an interesting renewal situation and sat with underwriters in their boxes amid the hallowed (at least to us insurance geeks) trappings of Lloyd's. I spent several lovely days in Hanover with my long-time lead reinsurer, Hanover Re, while trying desperately to keep up with my own work back home.
Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Fur Alle Gebiete Der Operativen Medizen
A characteristic feature of transplanting organs from living donors is that not only patients in need for treatment but also healthy individuals are submitted to medical interventions. Ethical considerations in this field have to deal with the question of property attributes of the human body and conflicts with traditional medical principles.
The debate on both the appropriateness of allowing healthy women to provide oocytes for research use and the use of financial incentives is increasingly reduced to a confrontation between ethics, science, and the welfare of women. It is plausible that the expansion of national and international research efforts, paired with the growing trend toward liberalizing stem cell research policies, will inevitably result in increased demand for the materials needed to conduct such research.
The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: A Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
We seem to prefer that medicine and medical care be provided through altruistic motives. Even the pharmaceutical industry justifies its behavior in terms of altruistic purposes. But economists have known since Adam Smith that self-interested behavior can create large and growing social benefits. This is true for medical care as well as for other goods. First, I consider specifically the case of pharmaceutical promotion, both to physicians and to consumers. I argue that such promotion is highly beneficial to patients and leads to health improvements.
Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
This article in the series describes how UK law and medical ethics have evolved to accommodate developments in organ transplantation surgery. August committees have formulated definitions of the point of death of the person which are compatible with the lawful procurement of functioning vital organs from cadavers. Some of the complexities of dead donor rules are examined. Live donors are a major source of kidneys and the laws that protect them are considered. Financial inducements and other incentives to donate erode the noble concept of altruism, but should they be unlawful?
The objective was to examine the economic, ethical, and legal foundations for conflict of interest restrictions between physicians and pharmaceutical and medical device industries ("industry"). Recently academic medical centers and professional organizations have adopted policies that restrict permissible interactions between industry and physicians. The motive is to avoid financial conflicts of interest that compromise core values of altruism and fiduciary relationships.
The current study proposed and tested a theoretical model of consumers' online brand community engagement behaviors, with particular attention given to online brand community type (consumer vs. marketer-created). By integrating attribution and social identity theories, this study investigated the causal linkages between intrinsic motives of altruism, social identification motivations, and online brand community engagement behaviors.
This article examines how beliefs can influence the definition, classification, understanding, and treatment of depression. It is organized in five parts: The first part critically reviews the definition of depression; the second part explores the medicalization of depression; the third part examines the role of the pharmaceutical industry in the promotion and marketing of antidepressant medications; the fourth part surveys the psychological therapies for depression and examines the role of expectancy in outcome; and the last part looks at the mechanisms involved in the placebo effect.