BACKGROUND: The collaborative treatment of acupuncture in addition to routine care as an approach for the management of low back pain (LBP) is receiving increasing recognition from both public and professional arenas. In 2010, the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Family Affairs (MOHW) of South Korea approved the practice of doctors and Oriental medical doctors (acupuncture qualified) working together in the same facility and offering collaborative treatment at the same time for the same disease.
In the Georgia Centenarian Study (Poon et al., Exceptional Longevity, 2006), centenarian cases and young controls are classified according to three categories (age, ethnic origin, and single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] of candidate longevity genes), where each factor has two possible levels. Here we provide methodologies to determine the minimum sample size needed to detect dependence in 2 x 2 x 2 tables based on Fisher's exact test evaluated exactly or by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), assuming only the case total L and the control total N are known.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
BACKGROUND: Genotype x environment interaction (G x E) arises when genes influence sensitivity to the environment. G x E is easily recognized in experimental organisms that permit randomization of genotypes over fixed environmental treatments. Genotype-environment correlation (rGE) arises when genetic effects create or evoke exposure to environmental differences.
Epigenetics is the study of changes to the genome that can switch genes on or off and determine which proteins are transcribed without altering the DNA sequence. Recently, epigenetic changes have been linked to the development and progression of disease such as psychiatric disorders. High-throughput epigenetic experiments have enabled researchers to measure genome-wide epigenetic profiles and yield data consisting of intensity ratios of immunoprecipitation versus reference samples.
By applying a technique previously developed to study ecosystem assembly [Capit·n et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 168101 (2009)] we study the evolutionary stable strategies of iterated 2 ◊ 2 games. We focus on memory-one strategies, whose probability to play a given action depends on the actions of both players in the previous time step. We find the asymptotically stable populations resulting from all possible invasions of any known stable population. The results of this invasion process are interpreted as transitions between different populations that occur with a certain probability.
We here present both experimental and theoretical results for an Anticipation Game, a two-stage game wherein the standard Dictator Game is played after a matching phase wherein receivers use the past actions of dictators to decide whether to interact with them. The experimental results for three different treatments show that partner choice induces dictators to adjust their donations towards the expectations of the receivers, giving significantly more than expected in the standard Dictator Game.
We analyse simulations reported in "The co-evolution of individual behaviors and social institutions" by Bowles et al., 2003 in the Journal of Theoretical Biology 223, 135-147, and begin with distinguishing two types of group selection models. The literature does not provide different names for them, but they are shown to be fundamentally different and have quite different empirical implications.
BACKGROUND: Recent multi-centre trials showed that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) was as efficacious and safe as artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for treatment of young children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria across diverse transmission settings in Africa. Longitudinal follow-up of patients in these trials supported previous findings that DP had a longer post-treatment prophylactic effect than AL, reducing the risk of reinfection and conferring additional health benefits to patients, particularly in areas with moderate to high malaria transmission.
In this paper, we develop a Bayesian method for joint analysis of longitudinal measurements and competing risks failure time data. The model allows one to analyze the longitudinal outcome with nonignorable missing data induced by multiple types of events, to analyze survival data with dependent censoring for the key event, and to draw inferences on multiple endpoints simultaneously. Compared with the likelihood approach, the Bayesian method has several advantages. It is computationally more tractable for high-dimensional random effects. It is also convenient to draw inference.
This article studies a general joint model for longitudinal measurements and competing risks survival data. The model consists of a linear mixed effects sub-model for the longitudinal outcome, a proportional cause-specific hazards frailty sub-model for the competing risks survival data, and a regression sub-model for the variance-covariance matrix of the multivariate latent random effects based on a modified Cholesky decomposition.