OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of health screening interventions aimed at enhancing informed choice. METHODS: Studies were selected if (1) they were randomized controlled trials conducted between January 1, 2000, and March 30, 2010, (2) participants in one arm underwent a prescreening intervention aimed at improving informed choice, and (3) informed choice was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Eight studies that met the inclusion criteria involved screening for prostate, colorectal and breast cancer, and diabetes. Five of the 8 prescreening interventions led to greater informed choice.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
During recent decades, the concept of health promotion has become a legitimate part of health care because of the aging of the postwar baby boom generation. As this population ages, the potential strain on health care systems will increase because the greatest use of health care services occurs during the last years of life. In older adults there are many correctable health factors that can be assessed through screening protocols.
Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
This experiment compared the effectiveness of gain-versus loss-framed messages to persuade women to obtain mammography screening. One hundred and thirty-three women 40 years and older and not adhering to current guidelines for obtaining mammography screening were assigned randomly to view either gain-framed (emphasizing the benefits of obtaining mammography) or loss-framed (emphasizing the risks of not obtaining mammography) persuasive videos that were factually equivalent. Attitudes and beliefs were measured before and immediately following the intervention.
The goal of the present study was to investigate parent-of-origin effects in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent-of-origin effects in ADHD may be due to differences in the relative quantity of risk factors transmitted by each parent. Alternatively, parent-of-origin effects may be produced by qualitative differences in the risks transmitted, such as those carried on the sex chromosomes or regulated by genomic imprinting.
OBJECTIVE: The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), a commonly used instrument of alcohol-related problems, was examined to determine whether it assessed the same constructs in individuals from religions with different proscriptions regarding the use of alcohol. METHOD: The MAST was completed by participants in the longitudinal Joint Child Health Project when they were approximately 23 years old. Subjects of this study (N= 747; 505 men) were 465 Hindus, 223 Catholics and 59 Muslims who reported drinking alcohol.
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Screening for colorectal cancer is a rational and cost-effective strategy for reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer and related mortality. Despite endorsement by academic and health care organizations, patient awareness and compliance with screening is low, partly because of patient-related barriers to screening. METHODS: A convenience sample of adults attending the internal medicine and family practice clinics of a community teaching hospital was studied.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We performed a pilot project to assess the need for and feasibility of a church-based stroke risk reduction intervention in a predominantly Mexican American community. METHODS: Participants were recruited after each mass on a single weekend from 2 Catholic churches in Corpus Christi, Texas. Questionnaires about personal stroke risk factors and interest in program participation were completed, and blood pressure screening was performed. RESULTS: A total of 150 individuals participated (63% Mexican American, median age 62).
Research has shown that individuals with a current religious affiliation are more likely to use preventive health services. The aim of this study was to determine whether breast screening uptake in Northern Ireland is higher amongst women with a current affiliation to an organised religion and, for those with no current affiliation, to examine whether their religion of upbringing is associated with uptake of breast screening.
One of the most important criteria for good health in childhood is normal growth. Taking regular accurate measurements of length and plotting them on a centile chart is essential to spot early signs of growth disorders. Be alert for a "zig-zag" pattern on the chart: it could indicate psychosocial dwarfism (see opposite). Length is more important than weight for identifying growth disorders. Lack of love, or an adverse emotional or social environment, can cause growth failure even in a child who is eating enough.