OBJECTIVES: To identify what factors affect women's decisions to delay childbearing, and to explore women's experiences and their perceptions of associated risks. DESIGN: Systematic procedures were used for search strategy, study selection, data extraction and analysis. Findings were synthesised using an approach developed from meta-ethnography. DATA SOURCES: We included qualitative papers, not confined to geographical area (1980-2009). Databases included CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, ASSIA, MIDIRS, British Nursing Index and the National Research Register.
INTRODUCTION: parental age at conception may affect life expectancy. Adult daughters of older fathers seem to live shorter lives and, in one study, being born to a mother aged <25 was an important predictor of exceptional longevity. The effect of parental age on fitness/frailty in late life is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relationships between parental age and frailty and longevity in older adults. METHODS: in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA), data was collected on individuals aged >or=65 using a Self-Assessed Risk Factor Questionnaire and screening interview.
This study presents initial findings of a new ongoing research project aimed to identify important predictors and mechanisms of exceptional human longevity. For this purpose the detailed data on long-lived people surviving to 100 years in the Unites States are collected, validated, and analyzed. The study found that being born to a young mother is an important predictor of person's longevity. The study also found that the "stout" body build at age 30 years (being in the heaviest 15% of population) significantly decreases chances of survival to 100 years.
This study explores the effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States between 1890 and 1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, the Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies, and other supplementary data resources.
Advanced paternal age has been suggested as a risk factor for autism, but empirical evidence is mixed. This study examines whether the association between paternal age and autism in the offspring (1) persists controlling for documented autism risk factors, including family psychiatric history, perinatal conditions, infant characteristics and demographic variables; (2) may be explained by familial traits associated with the autism phenotype, or confounding by parity; and (3) is consistent across epidemiological studies. Multiple study methods were adopted.
IMPORTANCE: Advancing paternal age has been linked to autism. OBJECTIVE: To further expand knowledge about the association between paternal age and autism by studying the effect of grandfathers' age on childhood autism. DESIGN: Population-based, multigenerational, case-control study. SETTING: Nationwide multigeneration and patient registers in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a study of individuals born in Sweden since 1932. Parental age at birth was obtained for more than 90% of the cohort.
Every year since 1984, Congress has expanded Medicaid to cover an increasing proportion of low-income children. In this study, a multivariate analysis of data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey was used to determine whether expanded Medicaid eligibility is likely to be effective in encouraging recommended preventive visits for low-income, preschool children.
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England)
BACKGROUND: Congenital lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) is a disease associated with high perinatal mortality and childhood morbidity. Fetal vesicoamniotic shunting (VAS) bypasses the obstruction with the potential to improve outcome. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and patient acceptability of VAS for fetal LUTO. DESIGN: A multicentre, randomised controlled trial incorporating a prospective registry, decision-analytic health economic model and preplanned Bayesian analysis using elicited opinions.
Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing: JOGNN / NAACOG
OBJECTIVE: To describe coping in healthy pregnant women and examine sociodemographic factors associated with coping styles. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Childbirth classes at 2 Midwestern urban hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy primigravidae (N=159), ages 18 to 34, in their third trimester. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive survey of healthy pregnant women using 2 reliable coping tools to measure pregnancy coping and general coping styles and determine their associations with sociodemographic factors.