Early life stress (child and adolescent abuse, neglect and trauma) induces robust alterations in emotional and social functioning resulting in enhanced risk for the development of psychopathologies such as mood and aggressive disorders. Here, an overview is given on recent findings in primate and rodent models of early life stress, demonstrating that chronic deprivation of early maternal care as well as chronic deprivation of early physical interactions with peers are profound risk factors for the development of inappropriate aggressive behaviors.
Epigenetic mechanisms may moderate genetic and environmental risk (GxE) for mood disorders. We used an experimental rhesus macaque model of early life stress to test whether epigenetic regulation of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) may contribute to GxE interactions that influence behavior and emotion.
BACKGROUND: Traumatic experiences in early life are risk factors for the development of behavioral and emotional disorders. Such disorders can persist through adulthood and have often been reported to be transmitted across generations. METHODS: To investigate the transgenerational effect of early stress, mice were exposed to chronic and unpredictable maternal separation from postnatal day 1 to 14.
Many forms of psychopathology and/or psychiatric illness can occur through the pathways of altered environmental sensitivity, impulsivity, social functioning, and anxious responding. While these traits are also heritable, environmental conditions are known to play a critical role. The genetic factors that contribute to these traits may be adaptive in certain contexts, but can - under the environmental conditions commonly faced among modern humans - also be key moderators of risk for psychopathological outcomes.
The specific risk factors for addiction within religious community members remain poorly understood and undefined. This paper presents data on the characteristics of chemically dependent women Religious (nuns) in order to understand the etiology and treatment needs of this special group. This study contrasts a group of Roman Catholic women Religious who are in treatment for chemical dependency with a volunteer, nonalcoholic, comparison group from similar religious communities.
This study is not concerned, as the title might suggest, with the actual death of the mother but with the child's experience of a mother who is physically present but internally absent due to depression. The child simultaneously introjects and splits off the mother imago, making mourning and "burial" equally impossible. The consequence of this cathectic deprivation is what the author calls "psychic holes" or "white depression".
In this contribution, the authors situate the development of Bowlby's attachment theory against the background of the social, cultural, and scientific developments in interbellum Britain. It is shown that fairly early in his life Bowlby adopted one fundamental idea-that an infant primarily needs a warm and loving mother, and that separations from the mother are potentially damaging-and never substantially changed that basic notion in later years.
BACKGROUND: Parental use of love withdrawal is thought to affect children's later psychological functioning because it creates a link between children's performance and relational consequences. In addition, recent studies have begun to show that experiences of love withdrawal also relate to the neural processing of socio-emotional information relevant to a performance-relational consequence link, and can moderate effects of oxytocin on social information processing and behavior.
Studies about the psychology of childhood asthma have revealed that parenting difficulties are related to the development of asthma in some children. Disruptions in maternal-infant bonding are highly correlated with pediatric asthma and are presented as a cause for these parenting problems. Bonding problems are known to be caused most often by physical separation at birth or by some recent trauma in the mother's life.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Coptis chinensis rhizomes (Coptidis Rhizoma, CR), also known as "Huang Lian", is a common component of traditional Chinese herbal formulae used for the relief of abdominal pain and diarrhea. Yet, the action mechanism of CR extract in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome is unknown. Thus, the aim of our present study is to investigate the effect of CR extract on neonatal maternal separation (NMS)-induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats and its underlying action mechanisms.