Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena

Publication Title: 
NestlÈ Nutrition Workshop Series. Paediatric Programme

Effects of in utero and early life conditions on adult health and disease such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are well documented by epidemiological and clinical observations. Animal models including intrauterine artery ligation, maternal restriction of iron, protein or general caloric intake, provide invaluable tools to understand mechanisms linking early growth and later diseases in adult life. In addition, the rodent model of maternal protein restriction has revealed that longevity can be influenced either positively or negatively by early growth patterns.

Author(s): 
Chen, J.-H.
Cottrell, E. C.
Ozanne, S. E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences

Early brain development has a tremendous impact on the success of humans throughout their lives. During early development, neural circuit formation proceeds in a strictly regulated manner. In addition to genetic and epigenetic programs, recent studies using animal models have demonstrated that certain maternal bio-active agents are essential for normal neural development, with deficiencies adversely affecting offspring brain function and behavior.

Author(s): 
Tozuka, Yusuke
Wada, Etsuko
Wada, Keiji
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine: The Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians

Preterm pregnancies account for approximately 10% of the total pregnancies and are associated with low birth weight (LBW) babies. Recent studies have shown that LBW babies are at an increased risk of developing brain disorders such as cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Maternal nutrition, particularly, micronutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism (folic acid, vitamin B(12), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) have a major role during pregnancy for developing fetus and are important determinants of epigenesis.

Author(s): 
Dhobale, Madhavi
Joshi, Sadhana
Publication Title: 
BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

Gestational factors play a role in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. In utero conditions influence future mental health through epigenetic mechanisms, which alter gene expression without affecting DNA coding sequence. Environmental factors account for at least 60% of the risk for developing major depression, and earlier onset of depressive illness has been observed over the past decades. I speculate that gestational factors may play a greater role in programing depression than previously recognized.

Author(s): 
Dulawa, Stephanie C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neuroendocrinology

This review discusses the effects of stress and nutrition throughout development and summarises studies investigating how exposure to stress or alterations in nutrition during the pre-conception, prenatal and early postnatal periods can affect the long-term health of an individual.

Author(s): 
Boersma, G. J.
Bale, T. L.
Casanello, P.
Lara, H. E.
Lucion, A. B.
Suchecki, D.
Tamashiro, K. L.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Eating Disorders

OBJECTIVE: To depict the processes through which animals and human beings engage their environment in continuously evolving states of conflict and cooperation. METHOD: Descriptive literature review. RESULTS: Life history outcomes are more relative than they are absolute. Genetic variations play a crucial role, but heavily influencing behavioral outcomes, psychopathology included, are external cues that epigenetically remodel DNA along experience-dependent signaling pathways. The result is phenotypes that either optimize adjustment, or constrain it.

Author(s): 
Strober, Michael
Peris, Tara
Steiger, Howard
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience Research

Psychiatric disease is believed to result from a combination of genetic vulnerability and environmental influence. At the crux are epigenetic modifications, which mediate the influence of environment on the genome. Twin and genome-wide association studies demonstrate a wide range of heritabilities across psychiatric disorders, while epidemiological and animal models implicate distinct developmental windows where environmental factors may interact with genetic vulnerability to confer risk.

Author(s): 
Guintivano, Jerry
Kaminsky, Zachary A.
Publication Title: 
Appetite

BACKGROUND: While maternal nutrition during pregnancy is known to play a critical role in the health of both mother and offspring, the magnitude of this association has only recently been realized. Novel, epigenetic data suggest that maternal dietary intake has permanent phenotypic consequences for offspring, highlighting the potency of antenatal diet. To date, the relationship between poor antenatal diet and maternal mental health specifically, remains poorly understood.

Author(s): 
Baskin, Rachel
Hill, Briony
Jacka, Felice N.
O'Neil, Adrienne
Skouteris, Helen
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Nutrient requirements increase during periods of growth and development such as pregnancy and lactation. In response, many clinicians recommend dietary supplements during these important periods of the life cycle. Although there exist some recommendations concerning the need for a limited number of nutrients in supplemental form (eg, iron, folic acid, and iodine), there is a relative paucity of data concerning the use of dietary supplements during pregnancy and lactation. Limited data suggest, however, that usage is dependent on demographic, sociologic, and economic factors.

Author(s): 
Picciano, Mary Frances
McGuire, Michelle K.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

There are periods during perinatal development in which specific nutrients are required for optimal development, and there is growing evidence that optimal dietary intake of these nutrients, which include iodine, docosahexaenoic acid, choline, and folate, is important. Lessons in how these nutrient effects were identified can help us to broaden our approaches for finding other critical nutrients: we are looking for nutrients for which there is a wide range of dietary intake, that have no or marginal pathways for biosynthesis, and that are needed by dividing progenitor cells.

Author(s): 
Zeisel, Steven H.

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