Maximum Tolerated Dose

Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Tetra-acetamide pyrroloquinazolinediamine (PQD-A4) and bis-ethylcarbamyl pyrroloquinazolinediamine (PQD-BE) are new derivatives of pyrroloquinazolinediamine (PQD) and are being investigated as potential chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malaria. Comparative studies to assess the therapeutic indices of PQD-A4, PQD-BE, and PQD were conducted in Plasmodium berghei-infected rats following daily intragastric dosing for three consecutive days. Artesunate (AS), a standard drug for treatment of severe malaria, was used as a comparator.

Author(s): 
Xie, Lisa H.
Li, Qigui
Lin, Ai J.
Smith, Kirsten
Zhang, Jing
Skillman, Donald S.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: The emergence of artemisinin resistance has raised concerns that the most potent antimalarial drug may be under threat. The currently recommended daily dose of artesunate (AS) is 4 mg/kg, and is administered for 3 days together with a partner antimalarial drug. This study investigated the impact of different AS doses on clinical and parasitological responses in malaria patients from an area of known artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. METHODS: Adult patients with uncomplicated P.

Author(s): 
Bethell, Delia
Se, Youry
Lon, Chanthap
Tyner, Stuart
Saunders, David
Sriwichai, Sabaithip
Darapiseth, Sea
Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya
Khemawoot, Phisit
Schaecher, Kurt
Ruttvisutinunt, Wiriya
Lin, Jessica
Kuntawungin, Worachet
Gosi, Panita
Timmermans, Ans
Smith, Bryan
Socheat, Duong
Fukuda, Mark M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Barleria prionitis Linn. (Family: Acanthaceae), one of the important Ayurvedic medicinal plant in India, has long been used to treat variety of ailments including swellings, gout, arthritic and rheumatic disorders, nervine and skin diseases, and also acts as immunorestorative. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was aimed to explore in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities of the iridoids fraction i.e. n-butanol fraction of methanol extract from Barleria prionitis aerial parts (IFBp).

Author(s): 
Ghule, B. V.
Yeole, P. G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients commonly use dietary supplements to "boost immune function". A polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake extract) showed immunomodulatory effects in preclinical studies and therefore the potential for clinical use. Whether oral administration in human produces measurable immunologic effects, however, is unknown. METHODS: In a phase I/II dose escalation trial, 34 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, free of disease after initial treatment, were enrolled sequentially in five cohorts.

Author(s): 
Deng, Gary
Lin, Hong
Seidman, Andrew
Fornier, Monica
D'Andrea, Gabriella
Wesa, Kathleen
Yeung, Simon
Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna
Vickers, Andrew J.
Cassileth, Barrie
Publication Title: 
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Dietary supplements containing black cohosh are alternatives to conventional hormone replacement therapy in menopause. This study investigates the maximum tolerated dose of a 75% ethanol extract of black cohosh and determines the pharmacokinetics of one of its most abundant triterpene glycosides, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein. Single doses of black cohosh extract containing 1.4, 2.8, or 5.6 mg of 23-epi-26-deoxyactein were administered to 15 healthy, menopausal women.

Author(s): 
van Breemen, R. B.
Liang, W.
Banuvar, S.
Shulman, L. P.
Pang, Y.
Tao, Y.
Nikolic, D.
Krock, K. M.
Fabricant, D. S.
Chen, S.-N.
Hedayat, S.
Bolton, J. L.
Pauli, G. F.
Piersen, C. E.
Krause, E. C.
Geller, S. E.
Farnsworth, N. R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)

A total of 123 patients, older than 18 years of age, with symptoms of chronic prostatitis and inflammatory findings as well as the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis confirmed by DNA/RNA DIGENE hybridization method in expressed prostatic secretion or in voided bladder urine collected immediately after prostatic massage, were examined. The patients were randomized to receive a total of 4.5 g of azithromycin for 3 weeks, given as a 3-day therapy of 1 x 500 mg weekly or clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. for 15 days. Patients' sexual partners were treated at the same time.

Author(s): 
Skerk, V.
Schönwald, S.
Krhen, I.
Markovinović, L.
Barsić, B.
Mareković, I.
Roglić, S.
Zeljko, Z.
Vince, A.
Cajić, V.
Publication Title: 
Revista De Saúde Pública

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the distribution of folic acid intake and the safety of different doses of supplements in women of childbearing age. METHODS: Data were used from two non-consecutive days of food records of 6,837 women of childbearing age (19-40 years old) participants of the National Food Survey, a module of the Household Budget Survey 2008-2009. Means and percentiles of usual consumption of natural folate and folic acid were estimated using the National Cancer Institute method.

Author(s): 
Santos, Quenia dos
Sichieri, Rosely
Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo
Verly, Eliseu
Publication Title: 
Marine Drugs

Arca subcrenata Lischke is a marine traditional Chinese medicine. The study investigated the antitumor effects of P2, a polypeptide fraction from A. subcrenata, and its toxicity in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that P2 could inhibit the proliferation of seven tumor cell lines, especially in HeLa and HT-29 cell lines. The IC₅₀ values were 11.43 μg/mL for HeLa and 13.00 μg/mL for HT-29 treated by P2 for 48 h. P2 had little cytotoxicity on normal liver cells (L-02). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of P2 on KM mice was 1000 mg/kg by i.p. or i.v.

Author(s): 
Hu, Xianjing
Song, Liyan
Huang, Lijiao
Zheng, Qin
Yu, Rongmin
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