Maze Learning

Publication Title: 
Likars'ka Sprava / Ministerstvo Okhorony Zdorov'ia UkraÔny

Telomeres are the ends of chromosomes and are non-coding DNA "end-capped" with structures containing DNA-quadruplexes and proteins. Telomeres become shorter after each cell division, which is one of the mechanisms of gradual ageing. Telomerase is the reverse transcriptase responsible for the extension of telomere length. It is well known that activation of telomerase in the most types of organism's cells is not enough for telomere length stabilization. The reason may be in the telomere "caps", which cover telomere ends from telomerase action.

Author(s): 
Osipov, N. V.
Publication Title: 
Physiology & Behavior

Ketogenic diets are high in fat and low in carbohydrates, and have long been used as an anticonvulsant therapy for drug-intractable and pediatric epilepsy. Additionally, ketogenic diets have been shown to provide neuroprotective effects against acute and chronic brain injury, including beneficial effects in various rodent models of neurodegeneration. Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurological, behavioral and metabolic dysfunction, and ketogenic diets have been shown to increase energy molecules and mitochondrial function.

Author(s): 
Ruskin, David N.
Ross, Jessica L.
Kawamura, Masahito
Ruiz, Tiffany L.
Geiger, Jonathan D.
Masino, Susan A.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Caloric restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL) fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed.

Author(s): 
Kuhla, Angela
Lange, Sophie
Holzmann, Carsten
Maass, Fabian
Petersen, Jana
Vollmar, Brigitte
Wree, Andreas
Publication Title: 
Biology Letters

The enzyme telomerase lengthens telomeres-protective structures containing repetitive DNA sequences at chromosome ends. Telomere shortening is associated with diseases of ageing in mammals. Chronic stress has been related to shorter immune-cell telomeres, but telomerase activity under stress may be low, permitting telomere loss, or high, partially attenuating it. We developed an experimental model to examine the impacts of extended unpredictable stress on telomerase activity in male rats.

Author(s): 
Beery, Annaliese K.
Lin, Jue
Biddle, Joshua S.
Francis, Darlene D.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Epel, Elissa S.
Publication Title: 
Biology Letters

The enzyme telomerase lengthens telomeres-protective structures containing repetitive DNA sequences at chromosome ends. Telomere shortening is associated with diseases of ageing in mammals. Chronic stress has been related to shorter immune-cell telomeres, but telomerase activity under stress may be low, permitting telomere loss, or high, partially attenuating it. We developed an experimental model to examine the impacts of extended unpredictable stress on telomerase activity in male rats.

Author(s): 
Beery, Annaliese K.
Lin, Jue
Biddle, Joshua S.
Francis, Darlene D.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Epel, Elissa S.
Publication Title: 
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology

DM235 (sunifiram), a new compound structurally related to piracetam, prevented the amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.), after intraperitoneal (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)) or oral (0.01-0.1 mg kg(-1)) administration, as shown by a passive avoidance test in mice. The antiamnesic effect of DM235 was comparable to that of well-known nootropic drugs such as piracetam (30-100 mg kg(-1) i.p.), aniracetam (100 mg kg(-1) p.o.) or rolipram (30 mg kg(-1) p.o.).

Author(s): 
Ghelardini, C.
Galeotti, N.
Gualtieri, F.
Romanelli, M. N.
Bucherelli, C.
Baldi, E.
Bartolini, A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: A Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Société Canadienne Des Sciences Pharmaceutiques

PURPOSE: The present study evaluates some azetidin-2-ones derivatives for their central nervous system (CNS) modulating activities. The compounds were chosen from a series (5a-o) which were previously synthesized and evaluated for hypolipidemic and antihyperglycemic activity based on the predictions made by the computer software "Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances (PASS)".

Author(s): 
Goel, Rajesh K.
Singh, Amanpreet
Naidu, Pattipati S.
Mahajan, Mohinder P.
Kulkarni, Shrinivas K.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

The leaf extract of E. neriifolia significantly reduced apomorphine-induced stereotypy in mice at all doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight) in mice and rats and was devoid of catalepsic effect thereby, suggesting specific dopaminergic receptor modulating activity. The extract (400 mg/kg) potentiated pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis. It showed protection against maximal electro-shock-induced convulsion at 400 mg/kg. E. neriifolia leaf extract had anxiolytic action at 400 mg/kg by increasing the percentage of time spent in open arm in elevated plus-maze.

Author(s): 
Bigoniya, Papiya
Rana, A. C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Magnolia dealbata Zucc. is considered to have tranquilizer and anticonvulsant properties in Mexican traditional medicine. In the present study we report the effects of a crude extract of Magnolia dealbata (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg) on mouse central nervous system (CNS). Pharmacological effects were tested on ambulatory activity, anti-anxiety response, sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in comparison to honokiol, buspirone, ethosuximide and diazepam as corresponding reference drugs.

Author(s): 
Martínez, A. L.
Domínguez, F.
Orozco, S.
Chávez, M.
Salgado, H.
González, M.
González-Trujano, M. E.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Despite the pervasiveness of alcohol (ethanol) use, it is unclear how the multiple molecular targets for ethanol contribute to its many behavioral effects. The function of GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) is altered by ethanol, but there are multiple subtypes of these receptors, and thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with specific behavioral actions. The alpha1 subunit of the GABA(A)-R is the most abundant alpha subunit in the brain, and the goal of this study was to determine the role of receptors containing this subunit in alcohol action.

Author(s): 
Werner, David F.
Blednov, Yuri A.
Ariwodola, Olusegun J.
Silberman, Yuval
Logan, Exazevia
Berry, Raymond B.
Borghese, Cecilia M.
Matthews, Douglas B.
Weiner, Jeffrey L.
Harrison, Neil L.
Harris, R. Adron
Homanics, Gregg E.

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