The aqueous extract of galls from Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) was fractionated on Diaion and refractionated on octadecyl silica column. Six phenolic compounds were isolated and identified as gallic acid (1), punicalagin (2), isoterchebulin (3), 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose (4), chebulagic acid (5) and chebulinic acid (6). All of the compounds showed stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and melanin inhibitory activities than ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, ?-tocopherol, arbutin and kojic acid, the reference compounds.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to formulate a water-in-oil emulsion (formulation) of Terminalia chebula versus its vehicle (base) as control, and investigate its effects on skin melanin, skin erythema, skin moisture content, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Base containing no active material, and formulation containing 5% concentrated extract of T. chebula, were developed. Different stability parameters were monitored at 8, 25, and 40 °C, as well as 40 °C + 75% relative humidity, for a period of 4 weeks.
Nine phenolic compounds, including two phenolic carboxylic acids, 1 and 2, seven hydrolyzable tannins, 3-9, eight triterpenoids, including four oleanane-type triterpene acids, 10-13, and four of their glucosides, 14-17, isolated from a MeOH extract of the gall of Terminalia chebula Retz.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi Jiehe Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
OBJECTIVE: To confirm the inhibitory effect of Chinese herbs of acid taste on melanin synthesis. METHODS: Active ingredients of 22 kinds Chinese herbs of acid tastes were extracted by alkali extraction and acid precipitation, alcohol extraction, and water extraction, respectively, which was then dispensed into 25.00, 12.50, and 6.25 g/L suspension. Their effects on activities of tyrosinase were detected using mushroom-tyrosinase-DOPA speed oxidation. Their inhibition rates on activities of tyrosinase were respectively compared with inhibition rates of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mmol/L arbutin.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Recent studies have demonstrated a role for telomerase in driving tumor progression, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we show that stable, ribozyme-mediated suppression of mouse telomerase RNA reduced telomerase RNA expression, telomerase activity, and telomere length, which significantly reduced tumor invasion and metastatic potential. Our studies reveal that previously unidentified effects of telomerase may mediate its tumor-promoting effects.
Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%).
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L., Zingiberacease) is widely used as a dietary pigment and spice, and has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, skin wounds and hepatic disorders in Ayurvedic, Unani and Chinese medicine. Although the topical application or oral administration of turmeric is used to improve skin trouble, there is no evidence to support this effect. The aim of this study was to clarify whether turmeric prevents chronic ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated skin damage.
We have identified potent monocyte/macrophage activating bacterial lipoproteins within commonly used immune enhancing botanicals such as Echinacea, American ginseng and alfalfa sprouts. These bacterial lipoproteins, along with lipopolysaccharides, were substantially more potent than other bacterially derived components when tested in in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation systems.
Immunity and metabolism are intimately linked; manipulating metabolism, either through diet or genetics, has the power to alter survival during infection. However, despite metabolism's powerful ability to alter the course of infections, little is known about what being "sick" means metabolically. Here we describe the metabolic changes occurring in a model system when Listeria monocytogenes causes a lethal infection in Drosophila melanogaster. L.
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Disruptions in the physiologic maintenance of the redox potential in neurons interfere with several biological processes, ultimately leading to cell death. Evidence has been developed for oxidative and nitrative damage to key cellular components in the PD substantia nigra.