The Id family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors is upregulated in a variety of human malignancies and has been implicated in promoting tumorigenesis through effects on cell growth, differentiation, and tumor angiogenesis. While expression of Id proteins has been associated with tumorigenesis, the precise mechanistic relationship between Id expression and carcinogenesis has not been clearly delineated. We have previously shown that Id1 delays cellular senescence in primary mammalian cells through inhibition of the cell cycle regulatory protein and familial melanoma gene, p16/INK4a.
Homeostasis is a key feature of the cellular lifespan. Its maintenance influences the rate of ageing and it is determined by several factors, including efficient proteolysis. The proteasome is the major cellular proteolytic machinery responsible for the degradation of both normal and damaged proteins. Alterations of proteasome function have been recorded in various biological phenomena including ageing and replicative senescence.
Melanocytes, the pigmented cells of the skin, and the glial Schwann cells lining peripheral nerves are developmentally derived from an early and transient ectodermal structure of the vertebrate embryo, the neural crest, which is also at the origin of multiple neural and non-neural cell types. Besides melanocytes and neural cells of the peripheral nervous system, the neural crest cells give rise to mesenchymal cell types in the head, which form most of the craniofacial skeleton, dermis, fat tissue and vascular musculo-connective components.
Recent research suggests that altered redox control of melanoma cell survival, proliferation, and invasiveness represents a chemical vulnerability that can be targeted by pharmacological modulation of cellular oxidative stress. The endoperoxide artemisinin and semisynthetic artemisinin-derivatives including dihydroartemisinin (DHA) constitute a major class of antimalarials that kill plasmodium parasites through induction of iron-dependent oxidative stress.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pyrostegia venusta is a native Brazilian plant which has a variety of uses in traditional folk medicine including the treatment of vitiligo. However, its effectiveness on melanogenesis is not yet elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the melanogenic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from the leaves and flowers of P. venusta on murine B16F10 melanoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different concentrations of the hydroalcoholic extracts of flowers and leaves of P.
The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor is implicated in melanocyte development and in the regulation of melanogenesis. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor is thought to bind to the M-box promoter elements of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 and dopachrome tautomerase/tyrosinase-related protein-2 and transactivate these genes, resulting in increased pigmentation.