Memory, Episodic

Publication Title: 
Climacteric: The Journal of the International Menopause Society

A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance.

Author(s): 
Lehert, P.
Villaseca, P.
Hogervorst, E.
Maki, P. M.
Henderson, V. W.
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Aging

Research to understand variability at the highest end of the cognitive performance distribution has been scarce. Our aim was to define a cognitive endophenotype based on exceptional episodic memory (EM) performance and to investigate familial aggregation of EM in families from the Long Life Family Study (LLFS). Using a sample of 1911 nondemented offspring of long-lived probands, we created a quantitative phenotype, EM (memory z ? 1.5), and classified LLFS families as EM and non-EM families based on the number of EM offspring.

Author(s): 
Barral, Sandra
Cosentino, Stephanie
Costa, Rosann
Andersen, Stacey L.
Christensen, Kaare
Eckfeldt, John H.
Newman, Anne B.
Perls, Thomas T.
Province, Michael A.
Hadley, Evan C.
Rossi, Winifred K.
Mayeux, Richard
Long Life Family Study
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation variation has been implicated in memory, cognitive performance, and dementia. Plasma apolipoprotein-A1 (ApoA1) levels may act as a biomarker of age-associated cognitive performance and decline. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the heritability of plasma ApoA1 protein levels; to examine DNA methylation variation within the APOA1 gene; and to investigate whether APOA1 methylation is associated with plasma ApoA1 levels and episodic memory performance.

Author(s): 
Lazarus, Jessica
Mather, Karen A.
Armstrong, Nicola J.
Song, Fei
Poljak, Anne
Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
Lee, Teresa
Kochan, Nicole A.
Brodaty, Henry
Wright, Margaret J.
Ames, David
Sachdev, Perminder S.
Kwok, John B. J.
Publication Title: 
Brain and Cognition

The present study investigates cortical structures associated with personality dimension of positivity (POS) by using a standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA), which provides EEG localization measures that are independent of the recording reference. Resting EEG and self-report measures of positivity, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and optimism were collected from 51 female undergraduates. EEG was recorded across 29 scalp sites. Anterior and posterior source alpha asymmetries of cortical activation were obtained by using sLORETA.

Author(s): 
Alessandri, Guido
Caprara, Gian Vittorio
De Pascalis, Vilfredo
Publication Title: 
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence supports the association between early memories of shame and lack of safeness and current shame and depression. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether shame serves as a mediator between such early memories and depressive symptoms. AIMS: This study aimed at testing whether the impact of shame traumatic memory, centrality of shame memory, early memories of warmth and safeness (predictors), on depressive symptoms (outcome) would be mediated by current external and internal shame.

Author(s): 
Matos, Marcela
Pinto-Gouveia, JosÈ
Duarte, Cristiana
Publication Title: 
PloS One

This study capitalizes on individual episodic memories to investigate the question, how dif-ferent environments affect us on a neural level. Instead of using predefined environmental stimuli, this study relied on individual representations of beauty and pleasure. Drawing upon episodic memories we conducted two experiments. Healthy subjects imagined pleasant and non-pleasant environments, as well as beautiful and non-beautiful environments while neural activity was measured by using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Author(s): 
Vedder, Aline
Smigielski, Lukasz
Gutyrchik, Evgeny
Bao, Yan
Blautzik, Janusch
Pˆppel, Ernst
Zaytseva, Yuliya
Russell, Edmund
Publication Title: 
Aging & Mental Health

OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study has been to increase the quality of life in people of over 60 years through a positive psychology intervention. METHOD: We employed a program which consists of training based on autobiographical memory, forgiveness and gratitude. The sample consisted of 46 participants aged 60-93 years. State and trait anxiety, depression, general memory, specific memories, life satisfaction and subjective happiness were measured.

Author(s): 
RamÌrez, EncarnaciÛn
Ortega, Ana Raquel
Chamorro, Alberto
Colmenero, JosÈ MarÌa
Publication Title: 
Behavioural Processes

Tag-based ethnocentric cooperation is a highly robust behavior which can evolve and prevail under a wide variety of conditions. Recent studies have demonstrated, however, that ethnocentrism can temporarily be suppressed by other competing strategies, especially in its early evolutionary stages.

Author(s): 
Hadzibeganovic, Tarik
Stauffer, Dietrich
Han, Xiao-Pu
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Functional neuroimaging studies show that hypnosis affects attention by modulating anterior cingulate cortex activation and uncoupling conflict monitoring and cognitive control function. Considering functional changes in the activation of the occipital and temporal cortices, precuneus, and other extrastriate visual areas, which account for hypnosis-induced altered reality perception, the role of mental imagery areas appears to be central under hypnosis.

Author(s): 
Del Casale, Antonio
Ferracuti, Stefano
Rapinesi, Chiara
Serata, Daniele
Sani, Gabriele
Savoja, Valeria
Kotzalidis, Georgios D.
Tatarelli, Roberto
Girardi, Paolo
Publication Title: 
Consciousness and Cognition

Following a hypnotic amnesia suggestion, highly hypnotically suggestible subjects may experience amnesia for events. Is there a failure to retrieve the material concerned from autobiographical (episodic) memory, or is it retrieved but blocked from consciousness? Highly hypnotically suggestible subjects produced free-associates to a list of concrete nouns. They were then given an amnesia suggestion for that episode followed by another free association list, which included 15 critical words that had been previously presented.

Author(s): 
Smith, Caleb Henry
Oakley, David A.
Morton, John

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