Mental Processes

Publication Title: 
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift

It is claimed that regular practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM) improves cognitive function and increases intelligence. This systematic review assesses the evidence from randomised controlled trials for cumulative effects of TM on cognitive function. Searches were made of electronic databases and the collected papers and official websites of the TM organisation. Only randomised controlled trials with objective outcome measures of the cumulative effects of TM on cognitive function were included.

Author(s): 
Canter, Peter H.
Ernst, Edzard
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury, due to its diffuse nature and high frequency of injury to frontotemporal and midbrain reticular activating systems, may cause disruption in many aspects of attention: arousal, selective attention, speed of information processing, and strategic control of attention, including sustained attention, shifting and dividing of attention, and working memory. An international team of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) convened to develop recommendations for the management of attentional problems.

Author(s): 
Ponsford, Jennie
Bayley, Mark
Wiseman-Hakes, Catherine
Togher, Leanne
Velikonja, Diana
McIntyre, Amanda
Janzen, Shannon
Tate, Robyn
INCOG Expert Panel
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

General intelligence is a robust predictor of important life outcomes, including educational and occupational attainment, successfully managing everyday life situations, good health and longevity. Some neuronal correlates of intelligence have been discovered, mainly indicating that larger cortices in widespread parieto-frontal brain networks and efficient neuronal information processing support higher intelligence. However, there is a lack of established associations between general intelligence and any basic structural brain parameters that have a clear functional meaning.

Author(s): 
Penke, L.
Maniega, S. MuÒoz
Bastin, M. E.
ValdÈs Hern·ndez, M. C.
Murray, C.
Royle, N. A.
Starr, J. M.
Wardlaw, J. M.
Deary, I. J.
Publication Title: 
Acta Paedopsychiatrica

The initial assumptions as to the existence of neurodevelopmental disorders have been confirmed by almost a century of studies focused on the nature and causes of reading disability. Dyslexia is an umbrella term for the various manifestations of reading disabilities, each of which is related to its own complex of neuropsychological dysfunctions, sometimes accompanied by neurological symptoms that can be indicative of the specific location involved.

Author(s): 
Njiokiktjien, C.
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Disorders in verbal and emotional communication and imitation, social reciprocity and higher order cognition observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are presented here as phenotypic expressions of temporo-spatial processing disorders (TSPDs). TSPDs include various degrees of disability in (i) processing multi-sensory dynamic stimuli online, (ii) associating them into meaningful and coherent patterns and (iii) producing real-time sensory-motor adjustments and motor outputs.

Author(s): 
Gepner, Bruno
FÈron, FranÁois
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria: 1996)

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of addictive behaviour and especially in alcohol craving. The pro-opiomelanocortin gene (POMC), encoding a 241 amino acids stretching polypeptide hormone precursor, plays an important role in the regulation of the HPA, and is prone to epigenetic regulation due to promoter-related DNA methylation. Aim of the present study therefore was to investigate possible differences in promoter-related DNA methylation in patients suffering from alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls.

Author(s): 
Muschler, Marc Andre Nicolas
Hillemacher, Thomas
Kraus, Cornelia
Kornhuber, Johannes
Bleich, Stefan
Frieling, Helge
Publication Title: 
Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America

This article provides a selective review of the neuroscience and child-psychoanalytic literature, focusing on areas of significant overlap and emphasizing comprehensive theories in developmental neuroscience and child psychoanalysis with testable mechanisms of action.

Author(s): 
Protopopescu, Xenia
Gerber, Andrew J.
Publication Title: 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

This paper presents a review of recent work on the role that two epigenetic-related systems may play in information processing mechanisms in the brain. The first consists of exosomes that transport epigenetic-related molecules between neurons. The second consists of homeoproteins like Otx2 that carry information from sense organs to primary sensory cortex. There is developing evidence that presynaptic neurons may be able to modulate the fine microanatomical structure in the postsynaptic neuron.

Author(s): 
Edelstein, Lawrence
Smythies, John
Publication Title: 
The Behavioral and Brain Sciences

The target article asserts that resilience results from a generalized tendency to appraise stressful circumstances positively. Apparently unbeknownst to the authors, essentially the same idea has been advanced before and studied extensively from a different research perspective. This raises a broader issue: the critical need, when projects attempt to span disciplines, to fully examine work from all relevant backgrounds.

Author(s): 
Carver, Charles S.
Scheier, Michael F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Using prospective longitudinal data, we tested 5 hypotheses: (a) that the relation between earlier developmental experiences (peer social rejection and victimization in a romantic relationship) and adult violent behavior toward peers and romantic partners is specific to relationship domain; (b) that the relation between social-information processing (SIP) biases and subsequent violence is also specific to relational domain (romantic partner vs.

Author(s): 
Pettit, Gregory S.
Lansford, Jennifer E.
Malone, Patrick S.
Dodge, Kenneth A.
Bates, John E.

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