The activity of a crude extract formulation was evaluated in experimental amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters and in immunomodulation studies. The formulation comprises the following five plants-Boerhavia diffusa, Tinospora cordifolia, Berberis aristata, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The formulation had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day in hepatic amoebiasis reducing the average degree of infection (ADI) to 1.3 as compared to 4.2 for sham-treated controls.
Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity has been detected in rodent (Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii), simian (P. knowlesi) and human (P. falciparum) malarial parasites, and in different intraerythrocytic stages of P. knowlesi (schizont > ring > trophozoite). In chloroquine-resistant strains of rodent and human malarial parasites GST activity significantly increases compared to sensitive strains. Further, the increase in enzyme activity is directly related to drug pressure of resistant P. berghei. Complete inhibition of chloroquine-sensitive and resistant P.
HPLC analysis of hamster hypothalamic 5HT indicated higher levels in females than in males on day 12 after birth. Levels of 5HT and 5HIAA could be reduced in both sexes by pCPA administration. Male and female hamster pups were treated on days 1-7 or 7-14 after birth with either pCPA, 5HTP or buffer, and tested for feminine and masculine sexual behaviour in adulthood. 5HTP had no effect on behaviour in either sex. pCPA had no effect on masculine sexual behaviour nor did it affect feminine sexual behaviour when given between days 1-7.
OBJECTIVES: The stationary phase of Clostridium difficile, which is primarily responsible for diarrhoeal symptoms, is refractory to antibiotic killing. We investigated whether disrupting the functions of the clostridial membrane is an approach to control C. difficile infections by promptly removing growing and non-growing cells. METHODS: The bactericidal activities of various membrane-active agents were determined against C. difficile logarithmic-phase and stationary-phase cultures and compared with known antibiotics.
BACKGROUND: In addition to lowering LDL-C, emerging data suggests that phytosterols (PS) may reduce blood triglycerides (TG), however, the underlying mechanisms are not known. METHODS: We examined the TG-lowering mechanisms of dietary PS in Syrian golden hamsters randomly assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet supplemented with PS (2%) for 6 weeks (n = 12/group). An additional subset of animals (n = 12) was provided the HF diet supplemented with ezetimibe (EZ, 0.002%) as a positive control as it is a cholesterol-lowering agent with known TG-lowering properties.
Trans fatty acids (TFA) from industrial sources [i.e. partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO)] have been associated with several chronic human diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD). The possible contribution of individual TFA to overall CHD risk remains largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of 2 major trans 18:1 isomers, trans-9 18:1 [elaidic acid (EA)] and trans-11 18:1 [vaccenic acid (VA)] on plasma lipid biomarkers of CHD risk.
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hyperlipidemia can promote arterial thrombus. We evaluated the potential of a partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) as dietary fiber on lipid profiles and FeCl3-induced arterial thrombosis in the high fat-diet fed hamsters. Our in vitro results found that PHGG is efficient to scavenge O2-*, H2O2, and HOCl. High fat-diet increased plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, methylguanidine and dityrosine level and accelerated FeCl3-induced arterial thrombosis formation (from 463 +/- 51 to 303 +/- 45 sec).
Epidemiological data suggest that plant-derived phenolics beneficial effects include an inhibition of LDL oxidation. After applying a screening method based on 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine-protein carbonyl reaction to 21 different plant-derived phenolic acids, we selected the most antioxidant ones. Their effect was assessed in 5 different oxidation systems, as well as in other model proteins.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Syrian Golden hamsters prefer and consume large and remarkably constant amounts of ethanol in a simple two-bottle free-choice regimen. Ethanol intake is significantly suppressed by zimelidine, bromocriptine, buspirone, and lithium carbonate, pharmacological agents that have been shown to be beneficial in controlling ethanol intake in alcohol-dependent humans. These results suggest that this ethanol-drinking animal model has high "predictive validity" and can be used effectively in the search for and identification of new agents for the treatment of alcohol abuse.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that acupuncture on stomach 36 point (ST-36) reduces hypertension by activating nitric oxide synthase signaling mechanisms. METHODS: The authors used the two-kidney, one-clip renal hypertension (2K1C) hamster model with electroacupuncture treatment. RESULTS: Thirty-minute daily electroacupuncture treatment for 5 days reduced mean arterial pressure from 160.0 +/- 7.6 to 128.0 +/- 4.3 mmHg (mean +/- SEM), compared to 115.0 +/- 7.2 mmHg in sham-operated hamsters.