Journal of Renal Nutrition: The Official Journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to evaluate the correlation between the amount of weekly fish intake and kidney function as measured by creatinine clearance (CCr) rate among elderly inhabitants of Ikaria Island, a place that has been related to an increased rate of longevity. METHODS: From June to October of 2009, 673 males and females, aged 65-100 years and long-term residents of Ikaria Island were enrolled. Of those, 328 (75†±†7 years) were males and 339 (75†±†6 years) were females.
Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
This study investigated the effect of Danshen on the pharmacodynamic-pharmacokinetic (PD-PK) effects of midazolam, a model CYP3A probe substrate. The effects of acute and 3-day Danshen treatment on the pharmacokinetics of a low dose midazolam (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were determined in vivo in the rat. Danshen (200 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment decreased midazolam clearance by 16%, with increases in the AUC by 22% and the half-life by 14%. 3-Day Danshen treatment (200 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 3 days decreased the clearance, with increases in the T(1/2) and AUC.
The influence of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin was studied with six healthy Vietnamese male subjects. In a crossover study, artemisinin capsules (500 mg) were administered with and without food after an overnight fast. Plasma samples were obtained up to 24 h after intake of each drug. Measurement of artemisinin concentrations was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.
Artemisinin is mainly eliminated by hepatic transformation. To investigate whether the clearance of artemisinin in patients with liver cirrhosis is different from healthy volunteers, a pharmacokinetic study was performed in male Vietnamese patients with Child B cirrhosis of the liver who received 500 mg of artemisinin orally. The results were compared to those found in a previous study in healthy subjects. The mean (+/- SD) area under the concentration time curve was 2365 (+/- 1761) h ng/ml; the mean (+/- SD) clearance, 382 (+/- 303)L/h.
AIMS: The pharmacokinetics of intramuscular artemether and its major plasma metabolite-dihydroartemisinin, were investigated in patients with severe manifestations of falciparum malaria. METHODS: Six severe falciparum malaria patients with acute renal failure (ARF) and 11 without ARF were recruited into the study. They were treated with intramuscular artemether at a loading dose of 160 mg, followed by daily doses of 80 mg for another 6 days (total dose 640 mg).
1. The clearance of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in control and malaria-infected (MI) rats was investigated using the isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) model and hepatic microsomal studies. 2. In the recirculating IPRL, clearance of DHA was reduced from a mean (s.d.) of 8.2+/-1.8 ml min(-1) in controls (n=8) to 6.0+/-1.0 ml min(-1) in MI (n=8; P<0.01). Clearance in control livers was similar to the perfusion flow rate, suggesting a high hepatic extraction ratio for DHA. 3.
Combinations of artemisinin and quinine for uncomplicated falciparum malaria were studied. A total of 268 patients were randomized to 7 days of quinine at 10 mg/kg of body weight three times a day (Q) or to artemisinin at 20 mg/kg of body weight followed by 3 (AQ3) or 5 (AQ5) days of quinine. Recrudescence rates were 16, 38, and 15% for the Q, AQ3, and AQ5 groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Recrudescence was associated with shorter parasite clearance time (PCT) and longer treatment after the blood smear had become negative (eradication time).
AIMS: To obtain comprehensive bioavailability data for artesunate (ARTS) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) following their separate oral administration to Vietnamese volunteers and to patients with acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria. METHODS: Volunteers were randomized to receive either i.v. ARTS (120 mg) followed by oral ARTS (150 mg) 8 h later (Group 1, n = 10), or i.v. ARTS (120 mg) followed by oral DHA (120 mg) 8 h later. Patients, also received oral ARTS (150 mg; Group 3, n = 8) or DHA (120 mg; Group 2, n = 7), in a randomized cross-over study design.
AIMS: To investigate whether coadministration of the antimalarials artesunate and artemisinin alters the clearance of either drug. METHODS: Ten healthy Vietnamese males (Group AS) were randomized to receive a single dose of 100 mg oral artesunate (pro-drug of dihydroartemisinin) on day -5 and then once daily for 5 consecutive days (days 1-5). Oral artemisinin (500 mg) was coadministered on days 1 and 5. Another 10 subjects (Group AM) were given 500 mg oral artemisinin on day -5 and then further doses on days 1-5. Artesunate 100 mg was given on days 1 and 5.
AIMS: To describe the population pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine in healthy volunteers after receiving tafenoquine for malaria prophylaxis. METHODS: The population consisted of 135 male Thai soldiers (mean age 28.9 years; weight 60.3 kg). All soldiers were presumptively treated with artesunate for 3 days plus doxycycline for 7 days to remove any pre-existing malaria infections. After the treatment regime, 104 soldiers (drug group) received a loading dose of 400 mg tafenoquine base daily for 3 days followed by 400 mg tafenoquine monthly for 5 consecutive months.