Metabolic Diseases

Publication Title: 
Orvosi Hetilap

Yoga and other body-mind techniques enjoy an increasing popularity in many fields of health maintaining practices, in prevention of some illnesses and in curative medicine in spite of our incomplete knowledge about its applicability and effects. There are large differences among the various yoga-schools and the heterogeneity of indications etc.

Author(s): 
Apor, Péter
Publication Title: 
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria

BACKGROUND: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. In this study, the chemical composition and free radical scavenging potential of leaf gall extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous) of Terminelia chebula is evaluated, which is extensively used in the preparation of traditiona medications to treat various metabolic diseases.

Author(s): 
Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur
Ramachandra, Y. L.
Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan
Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura
Austin, Richard Surendranath
Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs (London, England: 2000)

SIRT1 (sirtuin 1) is the human ortholog of the yeast Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) protein, which is implicated in lifespan extension in model organisms, such as yeast, worms and flies. It is an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase with over two dozen known substrates that affect a wide variety of cellular processes, ranging from metabolism, cell cycle, growth and differentiation, inflammation, senescence, apoptosis, stress response and aging.

Author(s): 
Ghosh, Hiyaa Singhee
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Cellular and organ metabolism affects organismal lifespan. Aging is characterized by increased risks for metabolic disorders, with age-associated degenerative diseases exhibiting varying degrees of mitochondrial dysfunction. The traditional view of the role of mitochondria generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cellular aging, assumed to be causative and simply detrimental for a long time now, is in need of reassessment.

Author(s): 
Long, Yun Chau
Tan, Theresa May Chin
Takao, Inoue
Tang, Bor Luen
Publication Title: 
Current Medicinal Chemistry

In the last years, studies about longevity have highlighted that caloric restriction can be linked with a less normal agingassociated damage, and in the same way, with the activity of the Silent Information Regulator 2 (SIR2) gene. Sir2-like genes, known as sirtuins (SIRTs), have been found in organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals promoting health and survival. At the moment, it has been identified seven classes of SIRTs in mammalian and the understanding of many of them remains still rudimentary.

Author(s): 
Sanchez-Fidalgo, S.
Villegas, I.
Sanchez-Hidalgo, M.
de la Lastra, C. Alarcon
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Arginine is derived from dietary protein intake, body protein breakdown, or endogenous de novo arginine production. The latter may be linked to the availability of citrulline, which is the immediate precursor of arginine and limiting factor for de novo arginine production. Arginine metabolism is highly compartmentalized due to the expression of the enzymes involved in arginine metabolism in various organs. A small fraction of arginine enters the NO synthase (NOS) pathway. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential and rate-limiting cofactor for the production of NO.

Author(s): 
Luiking, Yvette C.
Ten Have, Gabriella A. M.
Wolfe, Robert R.
Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.
Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a central metabolic cofactor by virtue of its redox capacity, and as such regulates a wealth of metabolic transformations. However, the identification of the longevity protein silent regulator 2 (Sir2), the founding member of the sirtuin protein family, as being NAD?-dependent reignited interest in this metabolite. The sirtuins (SIRT1-7 in mammals) utilize NAD? to deacetylate proteins in different subcellular compartments with a variety of functions, but with a strong convergence on optimizing mitochondrial function. Since cellular NAD?

Author(s): 
Mouchiroud, Laurent
Houtkooper, Riekelt H.
Auwerx, Johan
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Cellular and organ metabolism affects organismal lifespan. Aging is characterized by increased risks for metabolic disorders, with age-associated degenerative diseases exhibiting varying degrees of mitochondrial dysfunction. The traditional view of the role of mitochondria generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cellular aging, assumed to be causative and simply detrimental for a long time now, is in need of reassessment.

Author(s): 
Long, Yun Chau
Tan, Theresa May Chin
Takao, Inoue
Tang, Bor Luen
Publication Title: 
Comprehensive Therapy

It appears inevitable that with increased longevity, the management of the elderly diabetic will place even greater demands on hospital services. It seems reasonable to adopt a more liberal attitude to the regulation of control of diabetes in the elderly than in younger patients. However, the view that diabetes in the elderly is always mild can be dangerously misleading. A significant number of elderly diabetics develop ketoacidosis or other serious forms of metabolic disturbance, and in these patients the mortality is high.

Author(s): 
Walsh, C. H.
Publication Title: 
EMBO reports

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) helps to translate 'what you eat' into 'what you are' because it allows dietary fatty acids (PPARgamma ligands) to modulate gene transcription. Treatments for diabetes include PPARgamma activators, as they sensitize the body to insulin. Our understanding of PPARgamma function has recently been enhanced by a flurry of human and mouse genetic studies, and the characterization of new PPARgamma ligands.

Author(s): 
Cock, Terrie-Anne
Houten, Sander M.
Auwerx, Johan

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