Metabolism

Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

BACKGROUND: Identification of gene variants that contribute to exceptional survival may provide critical biologic information that informs optimal health across the life span. METHODS: As part of phenotype development efforts for the Long Life Family Study, endophenotypes that represent exceptional survival were identified and heritability estimates were calculated. Principal components (PCs) analysis was carried out using 28 physiologic measurements from five trait domains (cardiovascular, cognition, physical function, pulmonary, and metabolic).

Author(s): 
Matteini, Amy M.
Fallin, M. Daniele
Kammerer, Candace M.
Schupf, Nicole
Yashin, Anatoli I.
Christensen, Kaare
Arbeev, Konstantin G.
Barr, Graham
Mayeux, Richard
Newman, Anne B.
Walston, Jeremy D.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

Aging is a natural process that involves a general decline in many physiological functions, resulting in loss of function and eventually death. Extensive research is being performed in order to elucidate the biology of aging, especially with the advent of newer molecular and genetic methodologies. The endocrine system plays a major role in orchestrating cellular interactions, metabolism, growth, and senescence. Thus, researchers traditionally used hormones as tools to induce and examine specific biological effects that are associated with aging.

Author(s): 
Barzilai, Nir
Gabriely, Ilan
Atzmon, Gil
Suh, Yousin
Rothenberg, Devorah
Bergman, Aviv
Publication Title: 
Medical Hypotheses

Life prolongation with dietary restriction can be found in much of the animal kingdom and thus is a phenomenon that is evolutionarily conserved. We propose that one benefit of this is protection of the genome at lower dietary intake, perhaps by reduction of glycosylation related alterations and retardation of age related impairment of DNA repair.

Author(s): 
Spencer, R. P.
Publication Title: 
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

Panel 5 focused on genetic factors that might mediate or moderate the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on longevity. Panel members stated that currently there is limited information directly addressing these issues. Therefore, they focused attention on what studies could be done. In addition, the panel believed that certain conceptual issues merited clarification and focused attention on this issue. Human studies and studies of nonhuman model organisms were discussed.

Author(s): 
Allison, D. B.
Miller, R. A.
Austad, S. N.
Bouchard, C.
Leibel, R.
Klebanov, S.
Johnson, T.
Harrison, D. E.
Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

It has been known for some 70 years that restricting the food intake of laboratory rats extends their mean and maximum life span. In addition, such life extension has been observed over the years in many other species, including mice, hamsters, dogs, fish, invertebrate animals, and yeast. Since this life-extending action appears to be due to a restricted intake of energy, this dietary manipulation is referred to as caloric restriction (CR). CR extends life by slowing and/or delaying the ageing processes.

Author(s): 
Masoro, Edward J.
Publication Title: 
Seikagaku. The Journal of Japanese Biochemical Society
Author(s): 
Daitoku, Hiroaki
Fukamizu, Akiyoshi
Publication Title: 
Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling

BACKGROUND: Allometric scaling relating body mass to metabolic rate by an exponent of the former (Kleiber's Law), commonly known as quarter-power scaling (QPS), is controversial for claims made on its behalf, especially that of its universality for all life. As originally formulated, Kleiber was based upon the study of heat; metabolic rate is quantified in watts (or calories per unit time). Techniques and technology for metabolic energy measurement have been refined but the math has not.

Author(s): 
O'Kelly, Gregory C.
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Physiology

Most living organisms, including humans, age. Over time the ability to do physical and intellectual work deteriorates, and susceptibility to infectious, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases increases, which leads to general fitness decline and ultimately to death. Work in model organisms has demonstrated that genetic and environmental manipulations can prevent numerous age-associated diseases, improve health at advanced age, and increase life span.

Author(s): 
Libert, Sergiy
Guarente, Leonard
Publication Title: 
Preventing Chronic Disease

INTRODUCTION: Recruiting participants for research studies can be challenging. Many studies fall short of their target or must prolong recruitment to reach it. We examined recruitment and retention strategies and report lessons learned in a behavioral intervention developmental trial to encourage healthy pregnancy weight gain and stress reduction in low-income overweight pregnant women.

Author(s): 
Coleman-Phox, Kimberly
Laraia, Barbara A.
Adler, Nancy
Vieten, Cassandra
Thomas, Melanie
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

BACKGROUND: Psychological distress and metabolic dysregulation are associated with markers of accelerated cellular aging, including reduced telomerase activity and shortened telomere length. We examined whether participation in a mindfulness-based intervention, and, secondarily, improvements in psychological distress, eating behavior, and metabolic factors are associated with increases in telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

Author(s): 
Daubenmier, Jennifer
Lin, Jue
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Hecht, Frederick M.
Kristeller, Jean
Maninger, Nicole
Kuwata, Margaret
Bacchetti, Peter
Havel, Peter J.
Epel, Elissa

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