Metallothionein

Publication Title: 
PloS One

In previous investigations an impact of cellular copper homeostasis on ageing of the ascomycete Podospora anserina has been demonstrated. Here we provide new data indicating that mitochondria play a major role in this process. Determination of copper in the cytosolic fraction using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis and eGfp reporter gene studies indicate an age-related increase of cytosolic copper levels. We show that components of the mitochondrial matrix (i.e. eGFP targeted to mitochondria) become released from the organelle during ageing.

Author(s): 
Scheckhuber, Christian Q.
Grief, J¸rgen
Boilan, Emmanuelle
Luce, Karin
Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence
Rittmeyer, Claudia
Gredilla, Ricardo
Kolbesen, Bernd O.
Toussaint, Olivier
Osiewacz, Heinz D.
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Arsenite is one of the most toxic chemical substances known and is assumed to exert detrimental effects on viability even at lowest concentrations. By contrast and unlike higher concentrations, we here find that exposure to low-dose arsenite promotes growth of cultured mammalian cells. In the nematode C. elegans, low-dose arsenite promotes resistance against thermal and chemical stressors and extends lifespan of this metazoan, whereas higher concentrations reduce longevity. While arsenite causes a transient increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in C.

Author(s): 
Schmeisser, Sebastian
Schmeisser, Kathrin
Weimer, Sandra
Groth, Marco
Priebe, Steffen
Fazius, Eugen
Kuhlow, Doreen
Pick, Denis
Einax, J¸rgen W.
Guthke, Reinhard
Platzer, Matthias
Zarse, Kim
Ristow, Michael
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Arsenite is one of the most toxic chemical substances known and is assumed to exert detrimental effects on viability even at lowest concentrations. By contrast and unlike higher concentrations, we here find that exposure to low-dose arsenite promotes growth of cultured mammalian cells. In the nematode C. elegans, low-dose arsenite promotes resistance against thermal and chemical stressors and extends lifespan of this metazoan, whereas higher concentrations reduce longevity. While arsenite causes a transient increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in C.

Author(s): 
Schmeisser, Sebastian
Schmeisser, Kathrin
Weimer, Sandra
Groth, Marco
Priebe, Steffen
Fazius, Eugen
Kuhlow, Doreen
Pick, Denis
Einax, J¸rgen W.
Guthke, Reinhard
Platzer, Matthias
Zarse, Kim
Ristow, Michael
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight protein with anti-apoptotic properties that has been demonstrated to scavenge free radicals in vitro. MT has not been extensively investigated within the context of aging biology. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to discuss findings on MT that are relevant to basic aging mechanisms and to draw attention to the possible role of MT in pro-longevity interventions. MT is one of just a handful of proteins that, when overexpressed, has been demonstrated to increase mouse lifespan.

Author(s): 
Swindell, William R.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Xenobiotic metabolism has been proposed to play a role in modulating the rate of aging. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) are expressed at higher levels in calorically restricted mice (CR) and in GH/IGF-I-deficient, long-lived mutant mice. In this study, we show that many phase I XME genes are similarly upregulated in additional long-lived mouse models, including "crowded litter" (CL) mice, whose lifespan has been increased by food restriction limited to the first 3 wk of life, and in mice treated with rapamycin.

Author(s): 
Steinbaugh, Michael J.
Sun, Liou Y.
Bartke, Andrzej
Miller, Richard A.
Publication Title: 
Archives of Toxicology

The effect of acute and chronic cadmium administration on hepatic drug metabolism was investigated in the male rat. 3 days after the acute administration of cadmium by either the intraperitoneal (0.84 mg Cd/kg) or the oral (greater than 80 mg Cd/kg) route, there was a significant potentiation in duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibition of hepatic microsomal metabolism of hexobarbital and aniline.

Author(s): 
Schnell, R. C.
Yuhas, E. M.
Pence, D. H.
Means, J. R.
Roberts, S. A.
Yau, E. T.
Miya, T. S.
Mennear, J. H.
Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

The tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been studied for chronic disease preventive effects, and is marketed as part of many dietary supplements. However, case-reports have associated the use of green tea-based supplements with liver toxicity. We studied the hepatotoxic effects of high dose EGCG in male CF-1 mice. A single dose of EGCG (1500 mg/kg, i.g.) increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) by 138-fold and reduced survival by 85%. Once-daily dosing with EGCG increased hepatotoxic response.

Author(s): 
Lambert, Joshua D.
Kennett, Mary J.
Sang, Shengmin
Reuhl, Kenneth R.
Ju, Jihyeung
Yang, Chung S.
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